The Personal Notes and Diary


The Survival

Chapter 9 Settling in for the Future

Friday, the third of November, 1944.

It rains. The day is colder. I write the diary, and alternately I cut the wood. Tomorrow will be the fifth anniversary of my wife and my wedding. Therefore Halinka bakes the cake. We resolved to invite at Sunday my sister-in-law, Wanda, and her little daughter, Joasia, at modest dinner. -

Saturday, the fourth of November, 1944.

Mrs. Wanda, Mieczyslawa, Walentyna and Halinka put to us the congratulations on account of fifth anniversary of our wedding. Halinka gave to us the cakes, which is very savory.

My wife wished me that I was happy and together with her.

I remember very well this day, when before five years I married with my wife, Sophy. When we married - then in Pinsk were the Bolsheviks. We were afraid, and resolved later to run away, because I worked in "Dom Prasy" in Warsaw as correspondent.

The reception of guests was frugal, but elegant. We had even the tart. The day of our wedding is remembering to me therefore, because my brother Bohdan - the officer of reserve - turned at home from German slavery.

It passed five years of our harmonious marriage living, though it is a period of terrible war. Though our marriage was concluded during the war - we are very happy. Thank God that I have such good and true wife.

At eleven o'clock, my wife and I went with train of E.K.D. to Podkowa Lesna Glowna, where we bought one kilogram of beef, for which we paid one hundred and twenty Zlotys, and fifteen deco of lard for fifty two and half Zlotys. My wife will make tomorrow the cutlets at the dinner. It will be tomorrow very great family feast-day.

When we came back, we met on the station in Lesna Podkowa Glowna Mrs. Maria Romanowna, who left Warsaw before us, and who lived on Komitetowa-Street Nr. 3. Mrs Maria helped to us and gave the soups in our terrible days. This, what Mrs Maria made to us, we shall never forget.

Mrs. Maria was very satisfied, when she saw us. Now she go together with her sisters in course to Lowicz. When we said good-bye, she took our address, and said that she will come to us in sooner time.

Sunday, the fifth of November, 1944.

It is very sunny and nice day. Mrs Mieczyslawa Dobkiewicz and my wife prepare the dinner. From Mszczonow returned my friend Halinka and Mrs. Wala Zaleska, instead from Grodzisk Mazowiecki went my friend, Francis Belz. Also went my sister-in-law, Wanda, with her daughter, Joasia.

The dinner was splendid - and with brandy and cakes. When we ate the dinner, Mrs. Sliwinska paid a visit. She went from Grodzisk Mazowiecki. and brought the post-card, which was sent by Mrs. Stefa Kuprewicz from Silesia. Because Mrs. Stefa did not know our address, she wrote to Mrs. Sliwinska. She told to us about her survivals in Warsaw, when she left the flat on Zelazna Brama-place Nr. 3 together with our friend, Mrs. Stefa.

When Mrs. Sliwinska left our house, she said that we shall be in the contact. -

Monday, the sixth of November, 1944.

Today it is the name day of my dear sister, Leonarda, who there is at family Zagrodzkich, who lives in Piastow.

My wife and I took then cakes, and went to my sister that to put to her the wishes.

My sister was very happy, that we came. She got many practical presents from family Z. Because it passed the fifth anniversary of our wedding, my sister offered to my wife two pairs of stockings, the night-shirt and one small bottle eau de Cologne, and I got the night-shirt. My wife and I aver very glad.

Our friend, Olenka, who today did not allow to cook the dinner for my sister - prepared very splendid dinner. We ate the sausage with cabbage, and the barszcz. (1) Of course it was also the brandy.

The atmosphere during the dinner was very pleasant. I told about our survivals in Warsaw during our insurrection.

Tuesday, the seventh of November, 1944.

My wife and I went on foot to the country Janki, and from here to Raszyn that to see Mrs. Slawinska. She gave me to the selling very beautiful man's boots, the woman's linen, the collar of fur, and the man's overcoat.

When we returned at home, we took with them six pieces of cabbage, and several kilograms of carrots.

During our wandering I observed the traffic from the course of Warsaw. On different ways go to the western course many, many motor-cars, carriages and cabs, which are overfilled with different things and baggage. On their sit the members of Polish Red Cross and R.G.O. The first transport from Warsaw the ill persons from hospitals, and the medical instruments; the others - the private things from ruined houses. These things are gathered in the points of R.G.O., where they are divided between the poor people. But in this charitable organization is also very much injustice. Namely poor Varsovians, who were driven by Germans from Warsaw at the terrible wandering, do not get these things, which mostly are given by the members of R.G.O. to their families and to the next of kin. That is truth! That is painful truth! Many private things are in the hands of these people, who are wealthy and have their own houses and flats. They do not know, what it means the terrible wandering in the strange, but family sides. And they get the things, which are taken from ruined houses of Warsaw.

In future this thing will be examined, and all, who stole and injured the poor people, will be punished. I am sorry to write about this.

Wednesday, the eighth of November, 1944.

Today it is the name-day of my brother, Gotfryd, who is a musician-pianist. I want to see him, but in this moment my brother there is in Guzow near Mszczonow, at ex-director of Agricultural Bank (Bank Rolny) in Pinsk, Mr. Snitowski. But in sooner time he will come back to Piastow, to family Zagrodzkich. -

Thursday, the ninth, of November, 1944.

In Piastow, Pruszkow, and other near lying spots took place the great catching of people. The Germans caught especially Varsovians, who fled from Warsaw. Only in Pruszkow, where there is the terrible camp, Germans caught seven motor-cars. The poor people were located in this camp, from where for several days they will be transported to Reich. How much suffers poor Polish nation. - I went to Raszyn, and met Mr. Bogdan Szalajda, who said me that my brother Gotfryd came back from Guzow. -

Friday, the tenth of November, 1944.

Today first it snows. It is very cold. My wife and I go to Podkowa Lesna Glowna, where there is already family Zagrodzkich and my sister, Leonarda, and brother, Gotfryd.

Family Zagrodzkich lives in the beautiful villa of Mr. Humbert Corradini, who is an Italian, and who is a relative of engineer Stephen Zagrodzki. Mr. Corradini there is in Poland more than twenty years. His villa is lying in the pretty wood, where constantly is the fresh and healthy air. In this villa live near thirty persons, almost all from Warsaw. They are the refugees, who after the end of our insurrection, were obliged to wander in so named Generalgouvernment.

When we went to family Zagrodzkich, my sister said that our brother went to us to Nowa Wies. Therefore our visit did not last long. We returned home, and really, my brother sat and waited at us. Our greeting was cordial. Miss Halinka treated my brother with tea, and later we had a dinner.

I told to my brother our survivals in Warsaw. Also, I told about my work as correspondent in the insurrectionary press. Instead my brother told about his and my sister survivals, when we were in Warsaw, and in those terrible days there were over Warsaw. The visit of my brother is very remembering. He comforted us that in future it will be better. He lost his fortune - his composition - and he is a good mind.

My brother is very dear to me. -

Saturday, the eleventh of November, 1944.

Today it is our great jest - namely the Feast-day of Independence. The day is cold and gray. The reflections from the last years off to me.

Twenty and six years ago Joseph Pilsudski came from Magdeburg to Warsaw that to take in his hands the rudder of governments of Polish state, which was recovered after one hundred and twenty five years. Then were accomplished the dreams about the miracle (wonder), to which longed for many, many generations of Poles. It was the miraculous runaway of circumstances that three great powers, which once divided Poland, almost at the same time dispersed in the ruins. Meanwhile in 1918 year, Czar's Russian lay in paradox of civil war, threatening to all the world a communistic plague. Therefore the formation of Polish state in the character of pillar of coalition's politics on the eastern border of overpowered Germany - was a necessity.

From the first days - recovered Poland stood in the face of Bolshevistic danger. The politics of Joseph Pilsudski, which in the years of underground fight always was set at the combating of Russian imperialism, at present turned against Soviet's imperialism. Though Poland was weakened with the war, which lasted on its terrains several years, contravened against Soviet's attack. The fight, which was drawn with the exchanged luck between Polish and Soviet's armies, accomplished in 1920 year to the "Wonder upon river Vistula", where the military genius of Great Marshal decided the great overcoming at the profit of Polish arms. The Bolshevistic beast was hard wounded, and therefore was obliged to withdraw to its outlet's point. Poland together with all Europe easily rested.

From the time of these immortal occurrences the authority of Joseph Pilsudski crossed the different turns. Marshal Pilsudski was always faithful to the ideals, which were confessed at the West. Great Marshal always combated the strange influences, which went from the East. In the sphere of foreign politics, he searched the support in the western states.

We had signed many pacts - in 1934 year with Germany. But, these pacts showed only the waste-paper. Germany also made a pact with Soviet Russia in August of 1939, which divided Poland. In result of occurrences in 1939 year, Poland lost anew the political independence.

The tragedy of Poland, which found itself under two terrible occupations - Russian and German - was only a slight fragment of mighty occurrences in the total world scale.

For the current year the Bolsheviks anew entered at the Polish terrains. Under the mask of pretended friendship - hypocritically hid their real intentions: to communism all Poland.

Today however, when the Red Army stood upon river Vistula, bringing with it the bloody passwords of world revolution, it has not the illusion, that Poland can have the help from the Bolsheviks, and in that way - the deliverance. The best example gave to us Soviet Russia in our splendid and heroic insurrection. According to us Soviet Russia took the perfidious position. The hard Russian sections stood and stay till this time at Praga, and did not help to our brave insurgents. The Russians observed how Polish best sons bled and died for Poland. The Russians observed how Warsaw burnt, how thousands harmless civil people died and were killed by different German military shots. The Russians were glad. They knew that the Germans killed the best national elements. They knew that their crimes executed Germans. Why they had to waste the Poles, if Germans could make this. It is truth! Soviet Russia is not our friend. Soviet Russia is our great enemy, likely was Czar's Russia.

It passed twenty and six years, when we began our independence. Today is otherwise. We live in the misty times. We suffer. Our third insurrection fell down. But from these terrible times we shall go out victoriously. I believe in it.

Though this anniversary is sad - I think - the next will be better. -

Sunday, the twelfth of November, 1944.

It is morning. I went to Podkowa Lesna Glowna to church that to take part in the mass. Here there is very beautiful modern church, which was built before several years. In it church are very splendid and pretty. Church is very nice.

The mass was celebrated by the local provost, who had very wise sermon. He said about the Varsovians, who there are in the wandering. He appealed to the Polish society, which ought to help for Varsovians.

After the mass I went to family Zagrodzkich that to see my relatives Leonarda and Gotfryd.

I spent here very pleasant hours. My brother played piano. He played the works of Chopin. He had the great pleasure, playing on splendid forte-piano of German trade-mark "Blütner". Mr. and Mrs. Corradini, who are owners of it piano, bought it in 1940 year paying seventy thousands Zlotys. My brother gave to the small auditorium a concert. I heard my brother's playing with great satisfactions. It was a very nice time.

Today evening I wrote the post-cards to R.G.O. in Cracow, and to Mrs. Stefa Kuprewicz, who works in brickyard in Waldenburg in Silesia.

Monday, the thirteenth of November, 1944.

In Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Wlochy, and in Piastow took place the great catching of Varsovians. The Germans surrounded the market-places, and took Poles to the motor-cars, and then sent them to the camp in Pruszkow.

The German authorities ordered to all Polish society to come to the work by the great trench, which will be made from Nowa Wies to the road of Grojec. This way is great. Because Germans threatened to Poles, and announced the repressions - on the appointed places gathered itself more than six thousands Polish men, women, boys and girls, are sixteen years old.

I worked also. But I worked in the replacement of Mrs. Jozefa Krawczynska from Warsaw (Sienna-Street Nr. 45), who lives now in Komorow on Ogrodowa-Street Nr. 4. For my work in country Strzeniowka, which is lying three and half kilometers from Nowa Wies, I got from Mrs. Krawczynska two hundred and fifty Zlotys. Very much! I should like to earn. I should like to work though one week. It is a pity that I cannot further work off the duty owed by Mrs. Krawczynska.

The work by the making of the trench is hard. This trench is four meters wide, three and half meters deep, and is liked to the funnel. The Germans insure themselves before the Russian tanks, and therefore this long trench has to be a hindrance.

Tuesday, the fourteenth of November, 1944.

Today, came to Halinka Miss Lidia Rutkowska, who lives in Nowa Wies. She is a Varsovian, and run away from Warsaw after the insurrections. She is young and beautiful girl. She proposed to Mrs. Halinka that she sell to her sixty dollars. She wants to buy these for one engineer, who is her acquaintance.

At first I went to Milanowek to my acquaintance, director K., who works in K.K. I inquired after the course of dollars. He informed me, and I came back to Nowa Wies with the information. Soon I got thirteen thousands and two hundred Zlotys.

In Milanowek, I got sixty dollars, and paid these money. Very happy I cam back. Miss Lidia, Halinka, and I gained together six hundred Zlotys. Very happy day. The first transaction was successful. Miss Lidia said that in the coming future she will come to us with the new transactions.

Today in Komorow, Pruszkow, and in Grodzisk Mazowiecki too place the catching of Poles. When I stood on the station in Nowa Wies, from Grodzisk Mazowiecki went the train of E.K.D., which was hard escorted by the German gendarmes. In three carriages were located the caught people, who were transported to the camp in Pruszkow.

On the station in Nowa Wies, when the train stood, from the train-window one young boy threw the card, in which he wrote that he was caught by Germans in Grodzisk Mazowiecki. He asked that to inform his family, who there is in Nowa Wies. On the second side of it card, he wrote the address of his friend Jan Chlebek from Grodzisk Mazowiecki, who lives on Szczesna-Street Nr. 4, and asks about the information of his family.

Mrs. Mieczyslawa and my wife went to the family of the caught boy, and gave the card to the mother of poor boy, who is only sixteen years old. The old mother despaired. She is alone, and she lost her dear son. -

Wednesday, the fifteenth of November, 1944.

Today is the birthday of my dear wife, Sophy. She is already twenty and seven years old.

I remember very well the moment, when I made the acquaintance with my wife. It was thirteen years ago. My wife was then only fourteen years old. She learned in gymnasium of name Marshal Pilsudski in Pinsk, and she was yet a scholar of fourth class.

Three days before her birthday, when we had in gymnasium the great pause, which was after first three lessons, my wife and her friend, Jozia Nowakowna, came nearer me, and invited me and my friend, Arkadjusz Kurjan (who already died) at the Saturday of the fifteenth of November. They said that will be the evening-party, on which will come many friends and colleagues. This invitation we admired.

How it showed itself, I pleased to my wife very much. And really, the evening party at Zosienka (Sophy) was very splendid. The acceptation was good and fine. The hostess of my Zosienka, Mrs. Gabriela Przylucka (who is last year was shot by Germans for the conspire work in Pinsk) prepared very splendid supper, after which took place the dancing. It was many youth. The atmosphere was fine. It was joyfully. I spent very pleasant this evening, which approached me to my Zosienka, who was already my sympathy.

From this time I sympathized in Zosienka, who is pleasant, skilled and adroit. And after the years I married with her.

Yearly, on the birthday of my Zosienka, I gave to her many presents. It was my custom.

Only in this year I did not give to my wife a present. But she have very particular birthday, special and war's acceptation.

From Podkowa Lesna Glowna came to us my sister, Leonarda, and my brother Gotfryd. They wished to my Zosienka many, many happiness and fortune. Zosienka got from my family many presents. I shall enumerate these presents. First of all she got very pretty silk stockings, a silk shirt, twenty cigarettes of "Sport", a white bread, the roll, five bonbons, and twenty dekagrams of bacon. My wife was very satisfied from these presents, especially that they are practical.

Zosienka prepared the roll with sausage, and the coffee with milk, and treated our guests with these. After this refreshment, Zosienka served the dinner, which consisted from one dish - soup.

After dinner my brother stayed at home, and Mrs. Mieczyslawa, my sister, my wife, and I went to the woods, where we hewed one pin-tree, which was brought at our shoulders at home.

When we returned, already waited at us Halinka Stuczynska, who lives now in Brwinow on Kampinoska-Street Nr. 3. Halinka was remarked yesterday by my wife, who sold together with Mrs. Mieczyslawa D. the white bread with sausage among the Poles, who are employed by making of great trench.

Halinka Stuczynska is our old friend. At her mother we lived in 1940 year, after the flight from Pinsk from under the Russian occupation. In autumn of 1940 year we changed our flat and lived at Mr. and Mrs. Ziolkowscy on Zlota-Street Nr. 36.

When the Germans made the ghetto for Jews, Halinka Stuczynska and her mother were obliged to leave their flat on Sosnowa-Street Nr. 12, because this street belonged to Jewish Ghetto. From it street they went on Poznanska-Street, where they got the flat and where they were till the last time.

Our insurrection separated Miss Halinka and her mother, Julia. Halinka went out from Warsaw still before the insurrection, and stayed in Brwinow; instead her mother, after attaining of Poznanska-Street by Germans, was transported with thousands of other poor Poles to the camp in Pruszkow, where she was set at liberty. Mrs. Julia there is now in the country at her relatives.

Halinka works now by the digging of trench. Because we did not see themselves long, we told about our life. I told that her relative, Stach Rozmyslowicz, who was a member of country Army, lost in the quarter Stare Miasto his married sister, Hanka and her little son, Jedrus, who was eight years old. They died in the cellar under the ruins, after very hard German bombardment during the insurrection. Stach Rozmyslowicz tried to save his sister and his nephew, but in vain. He and eight insurgents disinterred the covered sister and nephew, but without a result. And they stayed in cellar.

This news was terrible to Halinka. But I was obliged to say the truth. -

When was already the evening - we accompanied my sister, my brother and Halinka to the train of E.K.D. Zosienka thanked to them for the memory and for the presents.

This day was very pleasant. In the evening we played in cards. -

Thursday, the sixteenth of November, 1944.

Today it is very cold and windy. Alternately it snows. The day is unpleasant. I want nothing to make. The day in monotonous and dry.

Friday, the seventeenth of November, 1944.

To us came Miss Lidia Rutkowska, who brought twenty gold dollars that to sell these. I went to Milanowek and sold this money for twenty one and five hundred Zlotys. This transaction brought to Miss Lidia, Halinka and to me seven hundred and fifty Zlotys, which were divided in three plain parts. I earned two hundred and fifty Zlotys. Miss Lidia, who is very beautiful and sympathetic girl, gives to me the clients, and I give to her the customers, who are my good acquaintances from Warsaw, and who worked here in this course.

Very satisfied I came back and gave to Miss Lidia the money and the dollars. She said to me that when she will have the new transactions, always she will come to me. I thanked her. -

Saturday, the eighteenth of November, 1944.

Today, I went anew to Milanowek, where I bought ten kilograms of sugar, for which I paid one thousand and two hundred Zlotys. When I returned at home, together with Mrs. Mieczyslawa, Mrs. Wala, and my wife - I went to the woods that to bring the wood.

In the woods was so beautifully that we admired the beauty of nature. All trees were covered with glittered snow. The birds were singing. From every side reigned the blissful calmness. It was the bewitched wood. Here I rested. We were happy that we could admire the uncommon beauty. So beautiful is the world, but the people are not good. Why?

We brought the wood and it was already the early evening. -

Sunday, the nineteenth of November, 1944.

Today were published in all Generalgouvernment the playbills, which are very great sensation not only for Poles, but also for all the world. Namely on all the walls in all countries and towns were put up the great and colored bills, which are a document of the moment.

Here is the contents of bills: (2)

"The German army accepts the volunteers of auxiliary service.

"Poles! By your part in the work by the digging trench - you demonstrated that in the moment of danger you are ready actively to help in the defence of native country before the Bolshevistic invasion. And therefore, the German army decided itself to give to you the possibility in still greater means to co-work in the defence of country before the red flood from the East, engaging the men of Poles, who are from sixteen to fifty years old, as the volunteers of auxiliary service.

"Poles! The German army call you! Declare you as he volunteers of auxiliary service to the ranks of German army to the fight against to the common enemy."

As much the official German publication. On the second bill we read that all Polish volunteers of auxiliary service in the German army will get: 1) the salary in the high (married) - 210 Zlotys monthly, (unmarried) - 150 Zlotys, 2) the gratuitous nourishing, lodging and the medical help such as have the German soldiers, 3) the gratuitous uniforms and armament, 4) if during the service the volunteer will have the corporal damages - hew ill get the medical help and the pecuniary subsidy, 5) the right to the using from the field's post in Generalgouvernment and in Reich. The volunteers of auxiliary service can fulfil the religious practices.

What I can add to these new German bills? Poles know very well the Germans. They made this too late. It was necessary to make in 1939 year, but not after five years of terrible and bloody occupation. During these five years of cruel and barbarous German occupation we knew very well the German souls, the German psyche, the German crimes. Between Poles and Germans is very great precipice, which separates us from Germans. The Germans killed in us every sympathy, which we had to them.

And today, after five years they call us to the ranks of German army. The Germans want to have the new gun's meat, and think that Poles will make the army, which will fight with Russians. Our enemies as well as the Germans and the Russians ought to know that Poles will not fight not even on the German side, not even on the Russian side. The Germans and Russians are our enemies. We do not want not even the communistic regime, not even the national socialism.

The Germans after the great massacres of Poles in Pawiak, in well-disciplined camps Oswiecim, Treblinka, Majdanek, Dachau, and others - want to have of Poles on their side. Poles will not fight on the side of cruel hangmen. Poles wait, when the Germans and Russian will be ended and will be conquered.

The new German appeal to Polish nation is a great political crime. None Pole will go to the ranks of German murderers. None Pole will be fight on the side of Germans. But I believe that Germans in sooner time will make the constrained mobilization among Poles, and then they will say that Poles alone declared to the German army.

Why Germans make today the great battues (3) in Grodzisk Mazowiecki (already seven days), in Piastow, in Komorow, in Pruszkow, and in other spots, and catch the Poles, just in these years, which are named on the bills. Meanwhile they are located in the camps, where they will be selected, and then will be sent to the barracks of pretended Polish voluntary sections. But none Pole will go voluntarily to the German army. Every Pole will flight before German invitation to the cruel armada.

The Germans lie. They write in their press that Poles voluntary went to the work on the making of great trench, that to defend itself before the Soviet attack at Polish terrains. They write that thousands of Poles began to support the efforts of German forces, wanting to stop the further advancing of Bolsheviks in the western course. Every day the population of towns and countries go with shovels and kilofami (4) on the fields that to build the efficacious and hard system of positions, on which will break all Russian tries, where will break the Russian power. They write about the previous co-work of Poles by the strengthening of defence against Bolshevism, and that this co-work forced the German Chief Command to form the Polish sections of volunteers of auxiliary service (Freiwillige Helfer). These volunteers can ascend to the German army.

In result - how writes the German and so names "Polish" press - every Pole from sixteen to fifty years can combat the red plague. Every Pole can apply in German military posts. Every volunteer ought to preserve the maxims of discipline with regard to his superiors, having the catch-word: "Against the Bolshevism for the new Europe."

How many lies and fables in this new German appeal to Polish nation.

From 1940 year Poles went "voluntarily" to Reich to work. Several millions of Poles sent Germans to their navy country, who were caught on the streets and what exposed the Germans. Several millions of Poles died in the well-disciplined camps in Generalgouvernment and in Reich. All Polish nation is persecuted by Germans so terrible that none nation in all Europe. And today the Germans catch of Poles on the streets, in churches, in the trains, in the houses, word by word everywhere that then to appeal to us and to form "Polish" sections of volunteers to the fight with Bolsheviks.

The crime, the barbarity and rogueness in the high degree. -

Today, I went at ten o'clock in the morning to Podkowa Lesna Glowna to church that to attend at the mass, after which I went to the sacristy that to order the requiem mass for the souls of deceased parents of Mrs. Mieczyslawa D., and I paid a hundred Zlotys. The requiem mass will be celebrated on Friday on the twenty and fourth of this month before the high-altar.

From church I went to Mrs. and Mr. Zagrodzkich that together with my brother, Gotfryd, and with my sister, Leonarda, to go to us at the dinner.

With train of E.K.D. we came to Nowa Wies, where Mrs. Mieczyslawa and my wife prepared the dinner. First of all we had very splendid and savory cutlets with sour cabbage, and with potatoes.

We spent very nice time, and then I accompanied my family to the train, and said good-bye. It was already the evening and it was raining. -

Monday, the twentieth of November, 1944.

It is warm. The snow melted, but it is many mud and marsh.

The Germans began anew the great catching of people, and the battues (5) of Varsovians. The Germans are mad and insane. they find the new chicaneries. Now they surround all the quarters in a small towns, or countries, and catch the young men, and women, especially form Warsaw. Especially are touched: Milanowek, Raszyn, Pruszkow, and the countries of Wypedy, Janki and others. Today the Germans began the catching in Milanowek, which is surrounded by hard posts of gendarmes. At first they surround all the quarters, the stations, the coming trains, the private offices, bureaus and houses, take the people and legitimate them. And when they have the great quantity of caught people - they send these to the camp in Pruszkow. Here they are posegregowani (6) and later sent to all camps in Reich.

The Polish nation will endure this barbarism. And when take place the catching of people, at once the others are warned. Especially warn the conductors in the train of E.K.D., and in the trains of normal railway. These conductors and railway-guards fulfil fully their duties. They are first of all Poles, though work at the Germans. And when the passengers want to travel, the conductors say that in the course, where take place the catching, it is not allowed to go. In this way they insure other Poles. They give very good information.

And when I went today from Opacz to Raszyn to family Slawinskich that to give two thousands Zlotys for the sold shoes - the peasants warned me that in Raszyn the German gendarmes surrounded the part of town near church, and take the people, who are located in two motor-cars. Because I was near Raszyn, I resolved to go to family Slawinskich. And when I found myself about a half of kilometer I heard the hard shooting. The Germans shot to the fleeing people. I heard one after another second series of shots. I was consternate. Finally I reached a small house, in which live Mr. and Mrs. Slawinscy. I greeted with them, gave the money, and rapidly left their flat.

When I went to the train to a small station in Opacz, I heard the salute of German gendarmes. I suppose that they shot many persons. The brutal Germans have very great predilection that to kill the poor and harmless people. It will come the moment, when your crimes will be revenged.

Poles have the good memory. Poles learn by heart the German crimes. Polish child, Polish boy, Polish girl know, what Germans make with their parents. Poles hate the Germans. Poles want to drive the Germans from Poland. We dream the defeat of German nations. I see the inevitable defeat of Germany, and when this will come I shall be glad. -

Tuesday, the twenty and first of November, 1944.

Before eighteen days I wrote the card to the commander of military camp in Germany, asking about the information of my friend, Francis Szarek that my wife and I live. I sent my new address in Nowa Wies, and asked that my friend write to me, because I have not the special post-cards and letters, which have to their disposition the Polish prisoners of war.

How great were my astonishment and pleasure, when I got from my friend very nice letter, which has very beautiful contents. Our joy was great, I wept even. Francis wrote very tender and sensible letter. He did not write to us already from July, and then took place our heroic insurrection. The contact was broken. During the insurrection I suppose that I never shall se him.

Who is Francis Szarek?

I shall try to define his silhouette. Francis is my best and devoted friend. I acquainted with him in 1938 year, and from this time he was our best friend. He worked in the post-office in Pinsk. He was a clerk and earned not much, besides the clerks in Poland earned little.

Our friendship was and is very hard, and endured many tries of good friendship. In 1939 year, when German attacked our native country, he was mobilized and took part in the fights as the second-lieutenant of reserve. When we said good-bye, Francis said that he will come back for certain.

After the campaign in Poland he found himself in German slavery as the prisoner of war.

Together with many my friends and colleagues, he there is in Germany. Here is his address: An den Kriegsgefangenen Podpor. Francis Szarek, Gefangenennummer: 1866/IIB, Barache 14a, Lager-Beseichnung: Kriegsgef.-Offizierlager IIC, 2 Woldenberg/Nm Deutschland (Allemagne).

From the first moments, when he found himself in slavery, we are in the letter's contact. We were under the Russian occupation - and Francis wrote to us. We came to Warsaw in 1940 year - Francis wrote, and sent even a hundred Zlotys, because our material situation was very hard and important. He helped by the sending very much. And when I began to work in the firm "Polstephan" at engineer, Mr. Stephan Zagrodzki, I could send to Francis the parcels with provisions. My wife wanted that to send these regularly.

The years passed. Francis there is in the military camp, and my wife and I are at the liberty, at the apparent liberty. Sometimes I reflect upon my life at "liberty" and upon the life of my friend in the camp. I can say that it were the moments, when my friend felt himself more safe than I - at the liberty. My friend in slavery is secured by the international right, which shelters him. But I together with millions of other my compatriots feel myself under the German occupation unwell. I am exposed at the catching, at the prison, at the arresting, at the well-disciplined camp, at the tortures and torment, at the execution. Lately, I am exposed at the "voluntary" entering to the "Polish" sections of volunteers, who will fight as the arms-companion in German army against the Bolsheviks. Dear Francis! This is terrible. This, what we survive here, is so terrible, that you cannot this understand.

You can know very much, but you cannot understand our sufferings. We are exposed at the constant German chicaneries. They vex us. They want to destroy us. They make this in the barbarous way. They have very good methods. They are the barbarians and ruin our culture and civilization, our towns and countries, our household and comfort. The Germans waste us and say that they are "benefactors" of humanity.

Francis, the Germans are the murderers of many millions harmless people. They want to conquer all the world, that then from the subdued millions to make the slaves, who will work as the farmer's men of German nation.

And when we shall meet themselves anew - then I shall tell to him about "the selected" German nation.

By your last letter - anew revived my remembrances. I return with my thoughts to my native town, where together with my wife, and you, I spend the most beautiful and sunny years. I remember very well, how we three went at the dances, at the walks, at the plaze (7) to the cinematographies, to the play-houses, and theaters. We spent very nice time.

I should like to survive this one more. I believe that it will be so. Meanwhile I wish to him that you were healthy, and that you could all endure.

I return to your last letter. Francis, my dear friend, you wrote so pretty letter. How many sublime and elevated thoughts, how many cordial and benevolent wishes to us. You comfort us, and you want to help for us. You know that we are in hard material condition. It is sufficient that you want to help to us. This is very much.

You write that you want to get the descriptions from our survivals during the insurrection in Warsaw. With pleasure I should like to make this, but I am afraid. The Germans control the letters, and can to read over my thoughts.

I thank you for this that you prayed. asking Good God that He preserve us by the living. I believe that your prayers helped to us and Good God allowed to us to survive the most beautiful days in our life.

You ask about Krysia Ziolkowska, with whom, you were in correspondence. You knew her only from the letters. You made the acquaintance with her, and I facilitated this acquaintance. I know that Krysia pleased to you very much. And Krysia dreamt about this moment, when you will come back to Poland. And Krysia dreamt about the moment of your meeting. She thought that she and you will spend together the time. Maybe she thought that you will be her husband. But she went out though she was still young. She was only eighteen years old and she could yet live. But the predestination wanted otherwise. She and her mother were killed by the German shots. Poor little Krysia!

I want to say to you yet something. Namely this that I lost all your letters, which you wrote to me from slavery, and which I gathered systematically. They burnt down. It is a great pity!

Wednesday, the twenty and second of November, 1944.

Today I went with my wife to my sister, Leonarda, who lives together with family Zagrodzkich in Podkowa Lesna Glowna. Mrs. Wiera Zagrodzka gave to my wife the silk stockings for two balls of thread, instead my sister gave the small wires to the washing.

When we came back to Nowa Wies, the people warned us that the gendarmes catch in Nowa Wies the Varsovians, and take them from the houses. We went at home, and from here Mrs. Mieczyslawa, Mrs. Wala, my wife, and I went to Mrs. Borowska, that to find at her the hiding before the catching. Mrs. Borowska accepted us very heartily. We stayed at her to four o'clock p.m., and then returned home.

From Nowa Wies the Germans took from thirteen nineteen persons. Today took place also the great catching of people in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Milanowek, Pruszkow, Komorow, and in other spots. Poor Poles so terrible suffer. The Germans treat us how the dogs. Poles are now pursued and are obliged to live similarly to the life of gypsies. -

Thursday, the twenty and third of November, 1944.

Today went to us my sister-in-law, Wanda, with her daughter little Joasia. She said that she was caught by the German Gendarmes on the small station near Czestochowa, and altogether with other women was transported to the camp in Koniecpol. Here there is about two thousands persons, especially women and girls, who work very hard by the making of the trenches, and buy the unloading of the carriages from the cement. The women and girls there are here several months and are dressed lightly, in the summer's dresses. Near there is the second camp - in Wlaszczowa.

The women and girls get a half kilogram of bread, a half liter of soup, and as much of black coffee. The living is very insufficient. All prisoners, who go to the camp, are obliged to give to the Germans their passports and personal documents.

In the prison, my sister-in-law was only seven days, because she resolved to flight. At last, when she found the suitable moment - she run away and refuged on the station in Koniecpol, where the Polish railway clerks helped her to hide. She passed the night, and next day she arrived to her mother, where there was little Joasia, thought she had none documents, which stayed in the command of camp. -

Mrs. Mieczyslawa, Mrs. Walentyna, my wife and I went to the near woods. Here I cut the pine-tree, and then we took the wood and brought it home. We were tired, because it was raining and snowing. -

Friday, the twenty and fourth of November, 1944.

I went to Pruszkow that to put in the post-case my letters and post-cards, which I wrote to my friend, Francis Szarek, and to Mrs. Stefa Kuprewicz, who works in Waldenburg.

Today, took place the great battue of Varsovians in Podkowa Lesna Glowna, Brwinow, Grodzisk Mazowiecki, and in Milanowek. In Brwinow, where are employed thousands Poles, by the digging of hunter trenches, the Germans loaded three trains with Poles, who were sent first to Pruszkow, and then to Reich. And later the Germans will write that Poles voluntarily arrive in Reich to the work. The beastliness of the Germans is so great that it is difficult to define.

Saturday, the twenty and fifth of November, 1944.

At ten o'clock in the morning went to us one German soldier together with the mayor of a village. The soldier legitimated me, and took my pass (kennkarte), saying that I ought at once to apply at mayor of a village. He said in addition that I and others will go to the work to the estate of Helenow, which is lying one kilometer from Nowa Wies. I answered that I shall go to the work, pleasing about my pass. But, I did not get it.

My wife was very afraid about me. She thought that it is the trick, and I shall be sent to the camp.

I was obliged to appear at mayor of a village. I had not my passport, and today to be without its - is very dangerous.

To the mayor of a village came thirteen persons. Among these I was also. Together with the soldier, who took all the passports, we went to the estate of Helenow.

This estate is very beautifully lying. Here there are the buildings of household, which say us that once here was the order and that here a good land-lord. The buildings are great and mostly made from bricks. All the estate is surrounded by the woods, which is a little wasted.

The estate makes very good impression. It belonged to the count Potocki, who was very wealthy man. He died before this war. After his death took place the great and known process. Namely in his testament he inscribed his fortune to the Polish state, but nothing to his family. The process was famous and long. His family and Polish government carried on a lawsuit. At last all the fortune of count Potocki got Polish state.

Today in this estate there are the Germans, who feel well. But how long they will be here? From the work, which is fulfilled here, I see that they want to be long.

We got the order: to dig out the trench about the length of fifty and five meters, about the broadness of a half meter, and about the deepness of one meter.

We worked very honestly that to end very quickly this clip of the work. And really, we ended our work at three o'clock p.m. The German officer, who observed our work, was satisfied and relaxed us because we were without dinner. Then this same soldier, who took us to the work, gave back our passports. We were very, very satisfied from the receiving of these, because we supposed that one shall be sent to Germany.

I returned home, and my wife was very happy and glad.

Today, Mrs. Mieczyslawa, Mrs. Wala and my wife went twice to the woods that to bring the wood. I wanted to go with them in the morning, but the German soldier crossed all our plans. The walk to the wood does not belong to the pleasure, especially if on the shoulders there are fifty or sixty kilograms of wood. This bringing is hard, but if we had the money, we would like to bring the wood. -

Sunday, the twenty and sixth of November, 1944.

Today the electric trains of E.K.D. are not movable, because the electricity in Pruszkow is damaged and repaired. The traffic is smaller, and the people are obliged to go on foot.

I wanted to go to Podkowa Lesna Glowna, to church, but I came back. The trains are stopped.

All shops, all institutions of work were anew opened in all district of Warsaw. They were shut by the Germans on account the digging of great trench. Because this trench was dug, the German authorities ordered to open the shops. The trade is anew normal.

In municipality of Helenow, and at all mayors of a village are published the new German order: All Varsovians ought to report themselves in the municipalities in this way that be sent to Reich to the work. The Germans wrote: All Varsovians will be sent to Reich, to these places, which are not bombarded by English-American aviators. Very characteristic declaration. Visibly all German is bombarded by "the pirates of air", how they write in their press, thinking about Englishmen and Americans. In Germany our allies revenge for the German brutality in Poland. This consoled us.

We are troubled about the new German order. We are decided to flight, if the Germans will take us to Reich. -

Monday, the twenty and seventh of November, 1944.

At seven o'clock in the morning somebody violently knocked to the door. Because the milkwoman, who brings to us the milk, knocks delicately, I knew that this is the strange person: the German. Mrs. Wanda Chajnacka dressed the overcoat and opened the door, which were shut on the key. In this time I hid myself in the wardrobe, where I sat inconveniently.

In front of Mrs. Wanda stood the same German soldier, who was at us on Saturday, and who took me to the work in the estate of Helenow. He was bad, and asked about me. Mrs. Wanda answered that I went out and maybe in soon time come back. He made the impression that he wanted to look for me. He looked at the wardrobe. My wife supposed, he will open the door of wardrobe. He said: "If I shall find him - I shall shoot him!" Stupid German thought that the women will say to him the truth. Because they categorically contested - he went out from the room, saying that he will come back in one hour.

When he left our flat, I quickly dressed, and without the breakfast resolved to go to Podkowa Lesna Glowna, where there is family of Zagrodzkich, together with my sister, Leonarda, and my brother, Gotfryd.

I said good-bye, and went on foot to Komorow, because the other German soldiers caught the people on the station in Nowa Wies. I was obliged to go first to Komorow. Here I waited at the train of E.K.D. not long. The train arrived soon, and it was not filled with passengers.

To Podkowa Lesna Glowna I went early. It was eight o'clock in the morning. Because it was very early that to pay a visit, first I went to church, where the clergyman celebrated the morning divine service. I was attend at all the mass.

From church I went to family Zagrodzkich, where I said about my adventure.

After the breakfast my brother played piano. He played the works of immortal Chopin, and my favorite melody "Kadencja" of Grieg, who to the Norwegian music brought very splendid melodies. When my brother plays - I am always touched. I thanked to him for his beautiful concert.

At eleven o'clock in the morning to family Zagrodzkich went from Milanowek professor of music, pianist and composer, Mr. Joseph Tolkacz, who is fifty and two years old. Professor Tolkacz gave to the children of Mr. and Mrs. Zagrodzkich the lessons of music. From here dates their acquaintance.

Professor Joseph Tolkacz already in the early youth played piano. As the boy, who is fifteen years old, retires on the estate. In 1912 year, on the competition in Moscow, in which take part sixty and six most able pianists, he conquers the third place.

He studied in Warsaw in the high musical school of Chopin under Professor Michalowski, and others. Then he went to Berlin, where he learnt at professor Barth, and from here he arrived to Leipzig, where he studied the theory of composition at professor Max Reger. With Max Reger, he composed many common works, for instance: Wariacje, Preludium, and two minuets. Together, he composed twelve works.

During our insurrection in Warsaw, he there was in the city. He left Warsaw on the seventh of October, and went to Milanowek, where he and Mr. Felix Dzierzanowski (who is famous from Polish Radio, where he played with his popular band) organize the musical band in the factory of silk. In this factory work three hundred workmen. The musical band consists from twelve persons.

Mr. Tolkacz for his work gets forty Zlotys for a day. It is very little. His material conditions are terrible. He is always hungry. Very often the workmen, who like the music, buy the brandy, sausage and roll, and treat their professor with these things. After this treating he is obliged to play two hours.

Poor professor! Today he is lost man, without moral sense.

I must say that he plays beautifully, he has a colossal technic, but he plays without the heart and soul. In his play had not a generosity and lyric, sentiment and tenderness. His playing is hard. He is a good performer, and plays very hard things, but he performs the works otherwise as my brother. The play of my brother differs, and therefore I like his playing. Today just all the auditory could convince themselves how played two musicians, two pianists.

After the concert, Mrs. Wiera Zagrodzka prepared the dinner. At four o'clock, my sister and my brother accompanied me to the train. Because my and my wife material situation is hard, my sister gave me the small gold lace of teeth in the way that to buy. They are for us very benevolent, and they want to improve our situation. They are alone poor, but they divide themselves with all. By the leave-taking my brother bought to us four pieces of bonbons, eight cigarettes, and the newspaper "Goniec Krakowski". For all these things, I thanked him and kissed him.

From this day I am very satisfied. - Mrs. Mieczyslawa and my wife today were twice in the woods. They are tired, because they brought many pieces of wood. -

All the world was informed by the English agency "Reuter" about the resignation of premier Mikolajczyk. His resignation took place on friday on twenty and four of November, and is very great surprise not only for Polish emigration, but also to us in Poland.

The English information does not publish the reasons of this resignation. They say only about the differences of opinions among Polish emigration in the matter of loosening of Polish-Russian conflict.

In the resignation of premier Mikolajczyk, I see the act of desperation. Namely the American ambassador in Moscow, Mr. Harriman, went to London, the first talk took place between Harriman and premier Mikolajczyk. Ambassador Harriman informed Polish premier that the American politics pays attention the guarantees according to Poland for a moment, when America decided itself at the support of politics by the resolutions on the conference in Dumbarton Oaks.

The Polish emigration's government in London had the hope that it will find the certain support and protection of England and U.S.A., but presently is also obliged from the mouth of American ambassador to take to the knowledge that to Polish government remains only the capitulation before the demands of Moscow. In the moment, when president Roosevelt could resign from every favor of elections, he gave to the understanding to Poles sincerely that practically he cannot move for Poles to make.

The resignation of premier Mikolajczyk has the eminently tragic sense. From the moment, when premier Mikolajczyk after the secret death of General Sikorski took the government, tended even though about the little help from the side of allies against Russian imperialism. Wanting to gain although the most weak support of London and Washington, premier Mikolajczyk led the politics of maximal abstinence in the face of Moscow that uselessly not irritate red Stalin.

Alas, every compromise, every trouble was unsuccessful and inefficient. London demanded from premier Mikolajczyk the condescension in the face of desires of Moscow. England agreed at the annexion of Eastern Confines together with towns Lwow and Wilno and gave advice the arrangement and co-work with "Polish" marionettes in Lublin.

When premier Churchill after the return from Moscow declared that the Bolshevistic pretensions in the face of Poles are arguments, and that between London and Moscow was reached the total agreement in the Polish question, it cannot have none illusions: The treason of England in the face of Poles was complete.

In these condition premier Mikolajczyk was obliged to acknowledge that he has already no medium of defence of Polish matters. He drew out from this fact the duly consequences - and went away. He divided the fate of General Sikorski, whom the resistance before Moscow brought to him the terrible death. He divided the fate of General Sosnkowski, who was obliged by Russians to resign.

The resignation of premier Mikolajczyk gives to us yet one proof that we cannot reckon on the help and protection of England.

The successor of premier Mikolajczyk is vice-premier Kwapinski, who declared that he will continue the politics of ex-premier Mikolajczyk that to gain the agreement with Soviet Russia, but on the strength of memorandum, which was presented to Russian government on the thirty and first of August this year, by Polish government. Afterwards, he will co-work with all allied powers in course of subsistence the co-work that to conquer Germany.

The new premier Kwapinski is a forehead's Polish socialist. He belongs to the Polish emigration's government from the month June of 1942 year, when he took the ministry of industry and trade. Next year he was nominated as the successor of premier.

The resignation of premier Mikolajczyk renders difficult the situation of our government, which wants to reach the agreement with Soviet Russia. Because Soviet Russia, which is drunk with its successes on all the fronts, and does not want to agree with Poland. That to reach the agreement with Russia - premier Mikolajczyk worked through all the time. He made for the Polish question very much. He had in Poland the support of all Polish society. Chief Mikolajczyk was by us liked, because we know that he worked only for great Poland. He defended us, and wanted that Soviet Russia never got the Eastern Confines. He was a wise politician. His politics was rested upon the honor and justice. He made for Poland very much, and we thank to him for this. We shall never forget, what made premier Mikolajczyk.

His resignation was to us very sad. We feel after this resignation resembling how after the death of General Sikorski. But we believe that new premier Kwapinski will be a honest and worthy successor of premier Mikolajczyk. We know here that the English politics allowed to fall down to premier Mikolajczyk that in this way to set aside the matter of conflict between England and Moscow. Poor Mikolajczyk felt himself hopelessly tired and unable to the further fight.

The development of political occurrences introduced the Polish question in the lane without the going and outlet. After five years of vain looking at England, which did not give to us the help, we see that English politics and English politicians there are on the wrong and erroneous way. The armed act in Warsaw, likewise how all Polish preceding insurrections, was a fiasco only therefore, because we did not get the help from outside. The insurrection in Warsaw got none English help, though premier Mikolajczyk made the great troubles at English and Russian governments. But English politicians were cold and indifferent, instead the Russian politicians observed the bloodshed of Polish best sons.

The Polish military forces, which were formed during the conspiracy, are disarmed and persecuted first of all by Russians, but the great ally of England and America, though Polish forces helped to Soviet Russia in the fight against Germany. In the face of these facts the middle and average Polish citizen loses every political orientation. From under his feet retires the solid ground of ideas and maxims, which he learnt in Polish school and in Polish home. The word of English gentleman showed itself only the phrase without importance and meaning. The victim from blood and property, which had tot show to all the world that Poles have the inflexible will of regaining of independent existence, met itself in all world with the icy indifference. Two months ago in Warsaw we convinced ourselves how helped to the Englishmen.

London and Washington do not guarantee the future borderlines of new Poland. Because London and Washington need the help of Russians - the succumb to Moscow. There is no doubt that Roosevelt and Churchill make this, what wishes red Stalin, and therefore they do not want to help to "the far and small nation", about which they know very little. It is the bitter truth! And though premier Mikolajczyk resigned, and though our government in London there is in the hard situation, I believe, will come the moment, when the justice will reign. -

Tuesday, the twenty and eighth of November, 1944.

I went to Milanowek that to sell the small gold lace of teeth for which I got five hundreds and eighty five Zlotys. This lace weighed 2,250 grams. Also I sold one dollar for one hundred and seventy Zlotys. This dollar belonged to Mrs. Borowska, who gave it to the selling for Miss Halinka.

When I arrived home, together with Mrs. Mieczyslawa and my wife I went to the woods after the wood. When we were in the woods, the German soldier, who wanted that to pilowac (8) and to cut for them the wood. In this way they caught the people, who carried out the wood. We were obliged to hide, because the Germans shot to the people. -

Wednesday, the twenty and ninth of November, 1944.

In the eve of St. Andrew name-day, is the custom that all the people, especially the youth prophesy. Because Mrs. Borowska is clear seeing and tells fortunes, I resolved to go to her. She is very intelligent person and works herself with fortune-telling not that to earn, but rather for her pleasure. My visit at her lasted one hour.

I shall try to describe all this, what she prophesied to me.

Now I find myself in the bad period, but it will continue not long. In this time I must to be on one's guard of the battues and catching. In sooner time I shall meet the marriage, which will tell me about the tragic and sad survivals, which will concern of my relation.

To us will come somebody, and his appearance will bring to us very great changes, first of all - material changes. Our material situation will be better. In sooner time will be the great change - the political change, maybe in the coming months.

In the house, in which live now, will take place the mortal accident. One person will be killed. Mrs. Borowska does not know, in what way, but she supposes that probably during the bombardment or shooting.

I asked about my brother Bohdan, who was an officer in Country Army, about my sister, Janina, and her two children, and about my brother-in-law, John, who there is in the well-disciplined camp in Oswiecim, and about my friends - Stach and Wlodek - who were in Country Army.

My sister, Janina, who before the insurrection there was in Dabkowizna near Radzymin, had the great and important survivals. She survived hard and suffered hard. She is separated with her husband, John, but the survivals of her husband are greater than her. I suppose - says Mrs. Borowska - that he will not endure. If he will endure - he will be completely weak. He will make only the ruin. Mrs. Borowska is afraid about the fate of my brother-in-law, from whom the prison in this moment is distant. Now he there is in the worse conditions. Maybe he was transported to the other well-disciplined camp.

As regards to my brother Bohdan, who took part at lieutenant in the insurrection in Warsaw, was wounded in the presence of two women. He will be saved. We shall meet themselves soon. The general-social things will approach us. He is liked by the people.

My friends Stach Nowak and Wlodek Denkowski are separated. Both survived very much. One from them was wounded. Stanislaw there is far, but he will come back. Wlodzimierz there is in the harder situation. He there is in prison, in camp, or in slavery. Both will save. About this will get the information first my wife. Wlodzimierz, who made for Polish question many, will triumph. He will have very high position.

In sooner time I shall meet somebody, who will give me the work. I shall work in my profession. I shall work as journalist of secret Polish press. From this time our material situation will be better. I shall be satisfied from my work. Because I shall be a journalist, I shall not be in the Polish secret army, which now makes preparation to the act.

Mrs. Borowska is also afraid about my wife, who can be arrested or caught. She ought to be on one's guard of catching, and arrests. She ought not to travel and to leave her flat, that to avoid the unpleasant adventures. On account of my wife, I shall have the hard survivals. My wife will have the hard moment in her life. She can be operated. She will wage the fight about the life.

Yet, during this war I shall work, and this work will give to me the great satisfaction. Soon will take place the great political changes. Mr. Borowska very distinctly sees the quick end of war, and we shall have the liberty. We shall be free.

Soon I shall contact with the person from the governing sphere, maybe even from abroad. This person will propose to me a certain situation. To me will be confided the things, which will be untied with the literature. Two or three times I shall be abroad, where I shall be delegated in the social and official things. During my journey, my wife will be hard ill. Maybe I shall be delegated to the transmarine countries. I shall have very good material conditions. My future will be beautiful. I shall have the great field to the examination and review, to the action and work: My horizons will be enlarged. It will be the curious history and horizons.

I shall meet the person, with whom I worked. I shall work with this person. But now I must give all from my heart, from my soul. Now I ought to work and to produce so that in future to publish my work. It work will bring to me very great pleasure. I shall be rewarded as well as morally and materially. My work will have the great historic meaning and importance. I should like that it was so.

In my life I shall have the adventure, rather the great love, survival. When I shall be abroad, I shall be beloved in the young stranger woman. She will not be a Pole. She will have a good heart. She will be beautiful and charming. This charming girl will bring the changes in my life, though I shall remain at my wife. This girl will bring some revolt in my still life. She will be a wise woman, and she will be a great author. She will establish the type of crystal.

My work will be printed and will bring to me the reputation. My notices, which were buried in the cellar will be saved.

At last, Mrs. Borowska said that my future will be splendid, and that my sister, Leonarda, will be married.

This all, what said me by Mrs. Borowska, I notice that to convince itself what it will verify itself in future. -

Afternoon I went with Mrs. Mieczyslawa and my wife to the woods after the wood. -

Thursday, the thirtieth of November, 1944.

With Bobus Zagrodzki, I went to Opacz, and from here on foot to Rakow, where worked Leon Zagrodzki in the German firm of engineer Sturm. We came to him in this way that to get the certificated of work (Ausweis). Because I did not see of Leon four months, our greeting was cordial. He promised me to make this certificate, if it will be possible.

From Rakow we went to Pruszkow, where we wanted to see the type-writers, and to give the letters on the post. Because we were hungry, on the station in the buffet, we drank two wine-glasses of brandy, and ate six pastes. For this Bobus paid one hundred ninety and two Zlotys.

At home I had a splendid dinner: two cutlets with potatoes, and soup.

Today only in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, in Podkowa Lesna Glowna, in Komorow, and in Opacz the Germans legitimated the people. -

Friday, the first of December, 1944.

The Germans authorities ordered anew the work by the digging of great trench, because on the appointed clip the works were ended. Now the people work near Ozarow Mazowiecki in Domaniewo. The Germans published: If the people will not come to the work they will be evacuated and driven from their flats and houses.

Today, I am troubled about my wife. I do not want to send her to the digging of trench. Meanwhile the German gendarmes go to the houses and drive away. Therefore, I decided to go to Podkowa Lesna Glowna, instead Mrs. Mieczyslawa and my wife went out from the flat and they went to the mayor of a village. And when we were not attend home, to us came the gendarmes, who legitimated Mrs. Wanda, Mrs. Wala, and Halinka, who had the certificates from German military.

In Podkowa Lesna Glowna, I was treated by family Zagrodzkich with the breakfast, after which my brother, Gotfryd, gave very beautiful concert. He played the works of Chopin, Skriabin, Liszt, and Shubert. The music gives me very great pleasure. I am very excited. I am always thankful for his play.

From Podkowa Lesna Glowna, I went with Bobus Zagrodzki to Pruszkow, where we sold the small balls to the bicycle. We paid the visit at my friend, Kazimierz Marciniak, who was evacuated from Pludy, where he had own flat. He came together with his wife, and his children, and lives now in Pruszkow on Kraszewskiego-Street Nr. 15. I gave to him the address of Mrs. Stefa Kuprewicz, who there is in Germany on the hard work.

When we were in Pruszkow, Bobus and I were very hungry. In this way we went to the restaurant, and we drank two brandies. When I cut the bread - I cut open with the penknife the left palm of the hand so terrible that I could not stop the inundation of blood. I have the great and deep wound. -

The English agency "Reuter" communicated that Polish premier, Mr. Kwapinski could not form the new cabinet, and therefore he resigned. The situation brought the new crisis in Polish government. Premier Churchill consulted with the representatives of Polish emigration, and he demanded in the hard tone the definitive liquidation of Polish-Russian conflict. Premier Winston Churchill threatened in the opposite case with the retreating of every English support. England does not want to support of Polish government. About this premier Churchill says very clearly and distinctly. England surpasses from old and benevolent advice to the threats and menaces.

President Roosevelt and premier Churchill refused to ex-premier Mikolajczyk their support in the question of Polish border-lines. The new premier Kwapinski, who announced the same line in the politics, which led premier Mikolajczyk, liked better to resign than to fight and without result.

The situation of Poles in England is tragic and dramatic. In 1939 year, England needed Poland, and today Great Britain renders its favorite at the favor and unfavor of red Stalin. The daily "Truth" (Prawda) in Moscow attacks the Polish government in London. Instead the chairman of "Polish" communistic committee in Lublin, Mr. Osobka-Morawski, declared that Soviet of Lublin can agree at the agreement with Polish emigration in London, if the Soviet demands will be regarded.

On the place of ex-premier Kwapinski, was called the leader of P.P.S. and representative of president, Tomasz Arciszewski, who formed yesterday the new cabinet of emigration. From the co-workers of ex-premier Mikolajczyk to the new government went only the minister of national defence, General Kukiel.

The British press in the severe way attacks the Polish government. "Daily Herald" writes that if Polish government will make the resistance in the face of Russian demands - it will be necessary to refuse the every financial help. Till this time about this wrote only the communistic "Daily Worker" and "New Statesman".

So, looks out the friendship of England to Poland. -

Saturday, the second of December, 1944.

My wife and I awakened early and got up, because to go to the woods, where we take always the wood. In the woods we had the shelter. It was eight o'clock in the morning, when we found ourselves in the woods. We were alarmed: the German gendarmes make the battue. The catch the people to the digging of trench in Domaniewo, which is distant from Nowa Wies near ten kilometers.

And really, Nowa Wies came the great group of gendarmes, who went to the particular houses and looked for the people. In our house were the gendarmes twice. First legitimated and examined the documents of Mrs. Wanda, Mieczyslawa, Wala, and Halinka, who with the exception of Mrs. Wanda have the certificates of German military doctor. The second group of German gendarmes also legitimated them, but one from them wanted that Mrs. Mieczyslawa went to the work. She answered that she cannot work. He cried and cried. He was angry. At last she answered absolutely: "I shall go to the local gendarmerie, and I shall show my certificate." The irritated gendarme with others went out. Mrs. Mieczyslawa was enervated. The representative of mayor of a village in Nowa Wies, Sobcsynski, asked about me, because he placed my name on the general list. He threatened me, that I shall go to the camp, if I shall not go to the work. Mrs. Wanda Chojnacka. answered that I work by the digging. She lied.

After three hours, we came back from the woods. At home all were excited. My wife resolved to go next day to the work.

When we returned home, we brought with us the wood. My wife and I sawed and cut the wood. Because my left hand was wounded, my wife replaced me, and cut all the wood. She worked first in her life. Her examination fell out well. I am very satisfied from my wife. Though she is unwell, she works so hard that all our acquaintances admire her. My dear wife. I supposed never that you will work so. You are brave woman.

Today we got till four post-cards from our friend Stefa Kuprewicz, who there is in Waldenburg-Schlesien ("Baustoff" - Hugo Fenzowski). The letter, which was sent to us on the address of Mrs. Sliwinska in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, and these four post-cards are tragic and dramatic. In the spacious letter she writes about her survivals in Warsaw during the first days of our insurrection.

Namely in the day, when broke out the insurrection, Mrs. Stefa went with train at Zoliborz, to the place, where the members of the secret Polish army was gathered. At Zoliborz found themselves the great groups of Polish soldiers. To one group belonged her husband, Stanislaw Nowak, who is our friend. Just Stefa wanted to see him. Because at Zoliborz the insurrection began itself at 2:30 o'clock p.m., Mrs. Stefa did not see him, and was obliged to return home. But she came back already under the hard shooting.

I did not know in what way she found herself at Powazki, and came back next day at Zelazna Brama-place Nr. 3. When she was already in the gate, from course of Saski-garden went the projectile, which tore itself near her. But, she saved and was not even wounded. The predestination wanted that she live. The predestination prepared to her the long and far journey, rather the terrible wandering.

On the seventh of August, when the Germans attacked the buildings, which are lying on Zelazna Brama-place, the inhabitants of Nr. 3 were driven away. Among those there was Mrs. Stefa, who took with them the great baggage, the little cat "Basia" and small dog "Hepi". All things, all private and personal things of her and her husband, and several beautiful rabbits were left home. Mrs. Stefa is weak and feeble, but she took many things. Because she went on foot and among the ruins and burning street of Warsaw, slowly she left her things. On Chlodna-Street, which stood in the terrible fire, she remained the cat "Basia and dog "Hepi" who burnt up. Poor animals!

The way of Mrs. Stefa from ruined and burnt Warsaw was hard. She went among the killed and burnt people, who were lying on the pavements and sidewalks. With heavy baggage she went to the camp in Pruszkow, where she and her acquaintance, Mrs. Helena Kicinska, found themselves in the barracks, from which they were sent to German, to Silesia.

Now, Mrs. Stefa there is in the brickyard. She works hard, and she is ill. Her place of work there is four kilometers from the barracks where she lives. Every day she goes eight kilometers on foot. Here living is hard. Her livelihood is very hard, because she gets daily a half kilogram of black bread, one liter of soup without fat, and one liter of coffee without sugar. Nothing more! She is obliged to work. She and thousands of Poles work hard for Germany. She and they suffer and are always hungry. She and they work for Germany, though they want to see Germany in the terrible defeat.

Poor Stefa is thrown by the fate in the strange country. She dreams about the fat and bread. She wants to be satiated. She asks about the bread. Poor Stefa! We shall send to you the bread, though we are also poor and without money. Our sufferings - Mrs. Stefa - probably are necessary. -

Today my friend, Leon Zagrodzki, who works in the German building's firm of engineer Sturm, which has the work in Rakow near Okecie, said me that the Polish workmen, who go to Warsaw on the German attendance observed the blowing up of beautiful buildings of public utility. Namely yesterday were blown up the modern Chief Station (Dworzec Glowny) and the modern building of post on Jerozolimskie-alley. In addition the Germans further set on fire all streets of Warsaw, which were not wasted during our insurrection. The Germans resolved completely ruin our City. So behaves the civilized nation, who wants to ruin all Europe. -

Sunday, the third of December, 1944.

At eight o'clock in the morning I went to Pruszkow that to avoid the catching, which took place yesterday. My wife decided to go to the digging of trench in Domaniewo, which is distant from Nowa Wies near ten kilometers. She went with the shovel on foot. She went in this way that to avoid of the scandal and adventure with Germans. I regretted her, and I had the remorse that she will work for me.

Because it was early yet, I went to church that to be attend on the mass. The clergyman, who celebrated the mass, celebrated the anniversary of his kaplanstwa. (9) He fulfills the duties of priest already twenty and five years. From church I went to the post-office that to give my four pos-cards to Mrs. Stefa, and then - to my friend, Kazimierz Marciniak, who works in Polish police. Here I was treated by his wife with the breakfast: with tea and white bread with butter. Splendid breakfast! I gave the post-cards of Mrs. Stefa, which I got yesterday, and asked about the help for her. My friend Kazimierz promised me to send to her the parcels with provisions and cigarettes, which it can change for the bread.

From Pruszkow I went with train of E.K.D. to Podkowa Lesna Glowna to my sister, Leonarda, and to family Zagrodzkich. I expected myself to get the certificate of work from Leon Zagrodzki. He said me that he could not to make this certificate yet. I was very sad and dissatisfied from these news. I wanted to go home, because Mrs. Wiera and my sister prepared splendid dinner. It was the family solemnity. Namely the name-day of oldest daughter, Barbara. It is true the name-day of Barbara is tomorrow, but family Zagrodzkich resolved to celebrate it today, on the Sunday.

There was many guests. Mrs. Felix Dzierzanowski - violinist and composer, who is know from Polish Radio, where he played with his famous band; his band played especially the popular work and melodies. Now Mr. Felix composed the great opera under the title "Wladyslaw Jagiello", which will be exposed after the war on Polish scenes. Without doubt he will attain the great success, because the solo parts are especially beautiful.

Also were attend: Mr. Humbert Corradini, with his wife, his friend (I do not remember his name), Mrs. Wiera Zagrodzka and her husband, Leon Zagrodzki with his wife, Lili, and Miss Krysia Ulejczyk.

The atmosphere was fine and pleasant. But the dinner and brandies were really splendid. I had very good occasion that to be satiated. I was some tipsy and therefore I came back home in the sunny humor, though the life is so hard and dangerous.

When I went home, my wife was lying in the bed. She returned home completely tired. Together she made on foot twenty kilometers. She said: "I am so tired that tomorrow I shall not go the work, though to us can come a hundred German gendarmes." The words of my wife are sufficient that she is tired. I suppose that she caught cold, -

Monday, the fourth of December, 1944.

My wife feel herself unwell. She is lying in bed. The weather is not fine. It is raining. I go to Opacz, and from here on foot to Rakow, where works Leon Zagrodzki. I want to get the certificate of work, but in vain. Leos is not energetic - and in result - I do not get the certificate - and return home. My wife has a temperature. -

Tomasz Arciszewski, the new premier of Polish emigration's government in London, formed, how informed the British agency Reuter, the new cabinet.

Premier Tomasz Arciszewski belongs to the oldest authors of P.P.S. (Polish Socialistic Party, which was organized by Joseph Pilsudski). He worked as conspirator in czar's Russia, and he is known as the enemy of Russia. In the month of July this year, he came secretly to Poland, and consulted together with the leaders of Polish underground activity. His setting against Soviet Russia is hostile and inimical. This unfriendly relation - I suppose - will not bring to him none profits. About this knows Soviet Russia. The Soviet's press attacks the Polish emigration in London. Especially attack the daily newspaper "The Truth" (Prawda) and "Izwiestja". Their articles and publications are anti-Polish.

How informed the Russian agency "TASS", in Lublin was opened the first session of "Polish professional councils". On this occasion of this session, the chairman of "Polish National Committee of Freedom" Osobka-Morawski attacked violently the Polish government in London. He said:

"Today we get the news from London about the resignation of Mikolajczyk. President Raczkiewicz ordered to Mr. Kwapinski to form the new government. The Mr. and Mr., who stay beyond the country, can only be engaged in the division of their portfolios. The Polish nation quite does not interest, who in the rows of emigrants will reach the victory. Very often it is placed the question, or it is possible the agreement of 'National Committee of Freedom' in Lublin with Polish emigrant's government in London. I answer: this agreement can be reached, if Polish emigration in London will induce to the postulated of our committee."

Soviet Russia and "Polish National Committee of Freedom" on Lublin play the comedy, and want to cheat all the world. Premier Mikolajczyk, who wanted to reach the agreement with Soviet Russia, twice was attend in Moscow, where he spoke with Stalin, Russian commissaries, and with the members of so named "Polish National Committee of Freedom" with Osobka-Morawski on the head. His conversations and consultations brought no result. He co-worked the famous and very well known to us memorandum, which was sent to Moscow. This memorandum gained the general approbation of leaders of Subterraneous Activity in Country, who however proposed the certain corrections. Doubtless these corrections were regarded in the text, which was sent to Moscow.

Between others this memorandum contains:

1) The bases of solid and durable Polish-Russian co-work after the war, which will contain the alliance between two countries. The question of border-lines ought to be arranged after this war, in the total European casements.

2) The forming by premier Mikolajczyk the new government in Warsaw, in which the communistic party could participate on the same maxims, what four democratic parties, which are represented in the present government. In this way "Polish National Committee of Freedom", which is supported by Moscow could be represented in the new government.

3) Arrangement of constitution's problem by the general voting after the freedom.

Very great concessions from the side of Polish emigration's government, which were made under the pressure of allied politicians did not help. At last Kremlin demanded: the resignation of premier Mikolajczyk. After Mikolajczyk, capitulated the new premier - Kwapinski. At present Tomasz Arciszewski fights with the same difficulties.

And our allies observe, how Soviet Russia combats our government in London, and wastes all this, what Polish on the new occupied Polish terrains. London and Washington allowed to Stalin the forming of "Polish National Committee of Freedom" (in reality - the communistic committee). London and Washington play and cheat our government in London. London and Washington do not protest that Russians arrest, export to depth Russia, and shoot Poles, who live beyond river Vistula. The politicians in London and Washington do not support our government, which is alone. Where there is a pact, which was signed by Polish minister Joseph Beck with Great Britain in 1939 year - Sir Winston Churchill? Where there is English word of honor? I suppose that this word was traced from English dictionary.

Meanwhile on all fronts fights Polish soldier and gives the certificate of heroism and bravery. Meanwhile beyond his shoulders hides itself the political lie and cheat. Meanwhile Polish soldier dies on all fronts, but not in Poland. According to the information of Polish military newspaper "Polska Walczaca" the total losses of Poles on the fronts amount till this time 876.700 persons. Where are the victims of our brave insurgents from Warsaw? To this number will go still two hundred thousands insurgents and civil populations.

For many blood, which was poured over for the allied matters and interests the Polish nation did not wait the thankfulness from the side of allies. President Roosevelt and premier Churchill assign today the fate of Poles in the bloody hands of red hangman Stalin.

What make the Bolsheviks on Polish terrain - I shall write later. I have very good information.

Meanwhile Polish soldier fights on all strange terrains. He dies, and suffers. Every day we read the notices, we tell with proud to Englishmen about the fights and victories of Polish Armoured Division in France. These victories we owe to the soldiers, from whom many are lying lonely in the English hospitals. Polish soldier bleeds in the service in the service of allies. Polish emigrations's press admits that Polish sections with premeditation are thrown to the most hot and furious fights. The losses are great, especially on the Italian clip. In the relation of Mrs. Halina Tomaszewska we find the characteristic description of fate of Polish wounded soldiers in the hospitals of allies. Among Polish soldier, who there are in hospitals, are young boys, who already know the war. for instance the boy, who is eighteen years old, Joseph, came to England through Archangielsk, Srodkowy East, and Persja, where in Polish camp lives for the future his mother and sister. In England he has no relatives. The letter's contact with mother in the face of displacement of Polish division to France - was interrupted. He does not speak English. He does not understand, if the English doctors and nurses ask for, what aches to them. He does not know, what they make with him, but he courageously suffers all, and he submits himself to the medical troubles.

Lastly, Polish wounded soldiers were transported from France. They fought in Caen, Falaise, Chambois, on the hiss Nr. X, on the hill Nr. Y. They ask about the fresh news. They tell about the fights, about the Polish Armoured Division. No soldier complain, about nothing asks and demands.

Andreas K-czuk, dragoon, who is thirty and five years old. Has the torn right hand, feels himself well, and is in sunny humor.

In the separated room is lying soldier, N-la, who is nineteen years old. He has the hard wound in the haunches. He descends from Silesia. He has very great ache. He knows nothing about his two younger brothers. He is alone not only in England, but also in all the world.

The wounded Polish soldiers alone beg nothing. Scarcely from the conversation results that properly they have nothing. They lost all, what they had before. Their things were wasted or burnt up, or stayed somewhere on the way. Today are wanting for them the private things of every day use. It is very great need of the machines to the shaving, the soap, the handkerchiefs, the brushes to the shaving, the razors, the morning's shoes. It are the total needs.

In Polish Red Cross in England, on the great map are placed the small flags, which say to us, where there are the hospitals. In all England there is from thirteen to nineteen hospitals, where there are Polish wounded soldiers.

Polish authorities from Red Cross explained to Mrs. Halina Tomaszewska that every Polish soldier get the parcel, in which there are the most necessary things, and the cigarettes, the matches, and the chocolate. That to provide the wounded soldiers for instance in the handkerchiefs in the razors - Polish Red Cross very often is obliged to turn to the generosity of Polish Colony in Great Britain. The duty of protection above the wounded soldiers falls down first of all at Polish emigration.

But on the hospital's section of Polish Red Cross wants the hands to the work - to the packing of parcels for Polish soldiers, to the replying of letters, and to the writing of cordial and hearty letters to the different Polish cannoneers, gunners, dragoons, who have no relatives, and who do not speak English.

The parcels and letters for Polish soldier; who is transported from the front - have the great importance and meaning. And when from Italy came to England the group of Polish wounded soldiers, at once they were comforted by their colleagues from Polish aircraft. Polish aviators write to them the hearty letters, because they understand what it means the living abroad.

From the article of Mrs. Halina Tomaszewska - I see that Polish soldiers have not such care, how they ought have in England, especially from the side of English government. Why we are so poor? -

Today, I went alone to the woods, and brought the wood. -

Tuesday, the fifth of December, 1944.

The ruin of Warsaw in consequence of August's insurrection makes to Polish society the new great stroke. Near two hundred thousands perished, instead the material losses will not give generally to define. Thousands and thousands of refugees from ruined and burnt by Germans Warsaw - are deprived of warm clothes, and every material medium. In the first moment they found themselves without the flat and bread.

The foreign countries, which indifferently observed our insurrection behaved themselves in the same way, preserving the complete silence in the face of misfortune thousands refugees from Warsaw. Previously in Warsaw, Poles inefficiently waited at the help: at the ammunition and arms, - and now waited at the immediate help for the ill and hungry Poles. All pretended friends and protectors of Polish nation lasted indifferently in the proud "splendid isolation", limiting themselves only to the ironical attentions, that Poles alone organized their insurrection, and that they did not make the understanding with Soviet Russia.

And meanwhile, it is necessary to remedy and to help to the misery, sufferings and to the wounds. I am obliged to say that the Germans gave to us the great material help. In the provisory camps Poles got the warm and nourishing soup, the coffee, and sufficient quantity of bread. I spoke with these persons, who were released by Germans from the camp in Pruszkow, or who run away alone. They confirmed that their living in camp was quite good. Also the delegates of International Red Cross confirmed this same. Even the German military doctors cared with Polish refugees. They gave to them the different medicaments. The military posts gave the provisions. The ill and unable to the work refugees were sent to the different spots in Generalgouvernment, instead the healthy refugees were transported to Germany. Rada Glowna Opiekuncza (10) got from German authorities the material mediums, and the support. The Polish charitable institution R.G.O. and the press make all, that to render possible for Varsovians, the searching of their families.

It is necessary to confirm that the action of authorities, even in the normal condition, cannot replace the social initiative. In the face of great ill-luck and great necessities all Poles ought take part in the charitable help. At present R.G.O. published to Polish society the appeal, calling to the universal action that to help to our countrymen, who there are in the ill-luck. This action makes the ethical-social postulate and is the most high order of moment, as well as the national and Christian duty. Only the united powers of Polish society can be in position (to do) to the enormity of misery.

The help to the refugees is a password, which ought to unite all Polish society regardless to the differences in the political convictions. The appeal of Cracow metropolitan, J.E. priest Sapieha says about the harmonious and conjoint effort of all Poles. The collective action of all Polish nation in the name of Evangelical maxim of mercifulness ought to buy the facts of illimitable egoism, which took place very often in Warsaw.

I believe that this appeal to Polish society will bring the result, and will be supported by all Poles. -

Today took place the catching in Pruszkow and in Milanowek. Anew thousands of harmless Poles were sent to the camps, or to the Reich.

Wednesday, the sixth of December, 1944.

Today, I was obliged to go to the digging of great trench, which will serve how the bolt against the tanks. The work takes place in Domaniewo, which is distant from Nowa Wies more than ten kilometers. Together I am obliged to go on foot twenty kilometers.

Because my wife and I find ourselves in hard material situation, I went without warm breakfast. I ate only the empty bread, and having this nourishment I had to have the power and vigor.

From Domaniewo I cam back home at three o'clock p.m. and was completely tired. My wife prepared me the dinner. I ate it with great appetite. Then I went to Podkowa Lesna Glowna that to see my family, who there is at family Zagrodzkich. In the train I got the information: In Grodzisk Mazowiecki and in Komorow are the great battues of Poles.

To Podkowa Lesna Glowna I went happily. Besides it was already five o'clock p.m. My brother, Gotfryd, who just returned from Jozefow, where he there was at Mr. Snitowski from the last Saturday. He spent there the time very nicely. My brother disguised himself, making the long paper bear, and cap, and dressed the black fur-coat. He was as Saint Nicholas. However, today is the great holiday of children. The children - it is the custom - get the different presents. These presents make the parents and they suppose that these brings Saint Nicholas. My brother as Saint Nicholas gave the presents for all children. Of course he divided the presents between the children of family Zagrodzkich and family Corradini. They got the small parcels, in which there were the bonbons and apples. The children were very satisfied, and happy. Only Saint Nicholas got nothing.

Why of this year Saint Nicholas is so poor? Why not all children did not get the presents? The war is terrible. And in this year of Saint Nicholas holiday, is sad and poor not only to the children, who there are in Poland, but also to me, to my wife, and to my family. I am poor that I cannot make the presents. I am so poor, how never in my life. I cannot buy even the apples. In Saint Nicholas holiday we have only the black bread, and drink only the black coffee without sugar. Why we have so hard material conditions? Why we are not rich? Why I cannot buy even the fat? This present I should like to make to my wife. We are hungry, while the other people have all, and eat all. Why I cannot make the presents to my wife, and to my family? I confirm: I am poor, thought I have the best will, and I wish to buy the modest presents.

My dear and poor wife! In this year your Saint Nicholas is poor, but I believe, the coming Saint Nicholas will be other and better. He will bring to you many, many different presents, and you will be happy. We shall be in Poland. We shall have the liberty. And then I shall buy all this, what I shall want. Well, my dear wife? And then I shall not see your tears. You will weep from the happiness.

And the Germans today made to us the surprise. They remember about us. They brought to us the presents: the arrests, and the catchings. In many spots of Generalgouvernment, they organized the catchings of harmless Poles, who were placed in the well-disciplined camps. The great battles took place in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, and in many health-resorts, which are lying near Warsaw. Anew the provisory camp in Pruszkow filled up with many Poles, who will be sent to Reich. -

Thursday, the seventh of December, 1944.

At eight o'clock in the morning I was already in famous Domaniewo, where many thousands men, women, boys and girls dig the great trench. The march to the place of work is very hard and long. Before I find myself on this place - I am quite tired. More than twenty kilometers to go on foot - it is difficult.

During the digging of trench I saw very disagreeable accident. The Russian (I suppose that he was a soldier in Soviet army and found himself in German military slavery, from where he run away) works with other his friends of misfortune among thousands of Poles. In a moment he goes quickly. Beyond him go three Germans, who run to him. They are the watchmen of Poles, who work. One is the soldier, and two persons are the civils, so named Volksdeutschers. At last he is stopped by the Germans. One from them stroke this Russian in the face with the fist. The second seized the shovel, and beat the Russian so horrible in the head and on the back that the Russian twisted from the ache. Also the German soldier came nearer and beat with his fist. Poor Russian fell down. The Germans beat further. And we were obliged to observe this terrible scene. Thousands people stood and observed. We could not react. We were furious. We wanted to stop the German hangmen, but it was the impossible thing. Finally the Germans set free the Russian.

When the Germans reassured and the Russian disappeared, we got the information that this Russian was drunken and worked slowly. -

My wife went today to Podkowa Lesna Glowna. She spent the whole day and got the present from my sister on account of Saint Nicholas holiday - the white apron and two walnuts. Mrs. Wiera Zagrodzka invited us on Sunday at the dinner. When my wife returned home, she showed me her present and gave me one walnut. She was satisfied from her presents. -

Friday, the eighth of December, 1944.

I went anew to the work - to the digging of great trench, which there is near Domaniewo. Together I went on foot twenty and four kilometers, and when I found myself at home - I felt myself completely tired.

At home I saw my dear brother, Gotfryd, who came from Podkowa Lesna Glowna. He brought one thousand and two hundred Zlotys for the shoes of my brother-in-saw, John, who there is in the well-disciplined camp in Oswiecim. These shoes sold Bobus Zagrodzki. My wife and I were very happy. We resolved to buy the bacon and the sugar. My wife gave to my brother one hundred Zlotys, and bought the meat. She prepared the cutlets and treated my brother. They tasted to us very well. We thanked to him for the money. My wife made a little parcel with the cutlet to my sister, Leonarda, who stayed in Podkowa Lesna Glowna. We agreed ourselves that we shall come to our family in Podkowa Lesna Glowna in the coming Sunday.

Today we got from Mrs. Stefa Kuprewicz very beautiful and long letter, in which is closed her terrible descriptions from her life in Germany, and the affliction and the intense longing to the family country. Poor Stefa!

The bloody sovereigns in Moscow work. At their order the communists in Greece began today the insurrection. They attacked the British section and garrisons with the Grecian section, in Athens. The Grecian premier, Papandreu, resigned. The broad-station in Athens retained its programs.

The British General-Major, Ronald Scobie, the commander-in-chief on this clip published the official notice, which was propagated by English agency Reuter.

About the day-break the communistic formations broke into the government's quarter in Athens, which is watched by British forces. The British section opposed themselves to the further march of communists. It came to the fights, which continue yet.

In the morning the British forces set out that to come with the help to the British section, which was designed to the protection of Acropolis. This section, which was transported in the goods train - was attacked by the communists, who began their shooting from the machine-guns and the grenades.

On the terrain of fights were sent the British tanks. On the other places in Athens developed itself the local military actions. The British forces suffered already the losses. Then were used the regular Grecian forces, which got the order: to throw away the communists from some parts of town. To the combat with the communists the Englishmen used the bomb-aeroplanes of type "Spitfire" and "Beaufighter", which bombed the communistic points of resistance. The tanks of type "Shermann" shoot from the guns about 75 millimeters, in the course of insurrectionary positions in the municipal quarter, which is lying beyond the modern stadium.

Through all the night between Acropolis and the hill Lykabettos, resounded the echo of artillery. The Grecian City continually is lighted with the showy rays of rockets.

General Scobie ordered to the British forces to protect the most important buildings, and to bolt the outlets of streets. He called the communists and partisans that they left the great territory in Athens - Pireus. General Scobie declared that the groups of communists, which will stay in this region - they will be regarded as the enemies, and will be treated according to the right of war. The groups of communists insurgents, which there are on the other points and in central-Grecian provinces, ought stay on the place. Every their activity and movement will be regarded by Englishmen for the hostilities.

The group of communists in the strength of eight hundred persons attacked in the night the City and port, Pireus. The official notice of General Scobie informs that the communistic bands were by English section surrounded and wasted. Till this time in British slavery found itself three thousand of communistic bandits and partisans.

The revolution in Greece has very great importance. Now English politicians understand, what it means the communism, and what it prepares to all the world. The communists attacked the British forces. Stalin - I suppose - felt himself very hard. Today for him England means nothing. And he ordered to his forces, which work in secret on all European terrains, to attack the British sections. This attack, which takes place on the convenient terrains in Europe, namely in Balkan - will bring in sooner time very great changes. The diplomatic connections between England, U.S.A., and Soviet Russia - there is not doubt - will grow worse. Maybe the communistic attack in Athens will bring to Soviet Russia the great losses. I believe that Soviet Russia in a short time will be left by the great partners: Great Britain and U.S.A. I believe, after the giving to Germany of great defeat - these states will attack Soviet Russia. Maybe the question of Polish eastern border-lines, or the attack of Grecian communists in Athens will be a cause to the military operations with Soviet Russia. We wait at this. We are happy that the diplomatic connections between premier Churchill, president Roosevelt and red Stalin spoil itself. -

Saturday, the ninth of December, 1944.

I worked in Domaniewo, where I dug the trench. When I returned home, I was completely tired.

Today the German caught in Wlochy near Warsaw Poles, especially young men, who were located in the old forts. First the German authorities used to this action the German infantry, what caused that the Germans caught the great number of men, because they did not know that to the catching were used the officers and soldiers from infantry. Till this time caught especially the German gendarmes. -

Sunday, the tenth of December, 1944.

Together with my wife I went to Pruszkow. Here we sent four post-cards to our friend, Stefa Kuprewicz, and then were in church for the mass. From church I went to my colleague, Kazimierz Marciniak, who works in Polish police, and lives on Kraszewskiego-Street Nr. 15. But he was not attend, because he went with other policeman and German gendarmes to Warsaw that to bring the wood and coal. His wife told me that he lastly observed through the opera-glass the quarter, which is lying upon river Vistula - Praga. He saw the great groupings of Russian army, which concentrates the great military powers. Probably the Soviet army will attack soon the German positions in Warsaw. Probably the fights on the clip animate themselves soon. Also he saw, how the Germans make in our City, in the center of a town - the great aerodrome. Namely, after blowing up of the chief station (Dworzec Glowny) the Germans glow up the houses, which are lying near this station. Then they plant all places, from which they will be made the aerodrome to the start of aeroplanes.

From Pruszkow we came back, and after the dinner we went to Podkowa Lesna Glowna to my family. On the way we met my brother, Gotfryd, who went at our meeting. He said that families Zagrodzkich and Corradini went out to Milanowek to Mr. and Mrs. Dzierzanowscy - at the reception.

My sister prepared to us, to Basia and Olenka with their children - the dinner, which was really very splendid. Here is the menu: two species of soups, the cutlets with potatoes, and the dessert - the jam. We had a good appetite.

After the dinner my brother gave splendid concert. He played the piano. He played my favorite melodies of Chopin, Skriabin, Schubert, and Grieg. We heard his play with great pleasure. And though he is my brother - I am obliged to say - that he is a very good performer and doer.

Because it was already late, he accompanied us to the train of E.K.D. My sister gave to us some lard.

Today Mrs. Sliwinska, who lives in Grodzisk Mazowiecki on Radonska-Street Nr. 32, brought to us four post-cards from our friend Stefa, who there is in German, and who writes also to us at the address of Mrs. Sliwinska.

In the cards, Mrs. Stefa writes about her hard life. She asks for about her husband, Stach. She is afraid about him, because she does not know, if he lives, or he is killed. The unknown fate of her husband - suffers her. She is therefore so troubled about him. -

Monday, the eleventh of December, 1944.

When I went home from Domaniewo, I did not find my wife, because she went to Grodzisk Mazowiecki that to take the overcoat of Mrs. Stefa (she wrote to us that she took and brought) and to buy the flour. And just when she took from Mrs. Sliwinska the overcoat and flour - Mrs. Sliwinska got from Mrs. Stefa two post-cards. One from them was addressed to my wife. In this post-card, which is dated by Stefa on the 6,XII.1944, she informs us that she had the attack of heart from the joy. Namely her husband and our devoted friend, Stach, refound himself. He wrote the letter to town Kielce, where there is their acquaintance, and from here Mrs. Stefa got his address. He lives and there is in German military camp. He was taken to slavery by Germans, after the ending of our insurrection in Warsaw. He took part in insurrection of Warsaw, together with many of my friends. Stach, who was always good, and helped to us, especially in 1940 year, when we came to Warsaw from Pinsk - worked as policeman in Polish secret organization. He made for Poland very much. As policeman he transported from one to second place the arms and ammunition. He brought these on foot, or in the tramways, though the German gendarmes very often rewidowac (11) not only the civil persons, but also the policemen. But he did not pay attention at this, and worked intensively. He worked in Polish secret organization, and went to the place of this organization at Zoliborz then, if he was called and announced by the special courier. He worked gratis, and got no payment. He worked disinterestedly and honorable. His work was true and great service for Poland. He got no honorarium, though very often he suffered the need.

Stach immediately subdued to my friend Wlodzimierz Denkowski. He worked together with "Maly", Zbigniew, Stephen, with Mrs. Sophie, and with Miss Halinka (these two Misses were the couriers and brought the different papers and documents). This organization was a military organization, and mostly it executed the sentences of death at the German rakes and hangmen, and at the Polish traitors. But Stach did not take a part in these executions. He had quite another function. Oh, yes, he took part in the attacks of Polish military groups at the German trains, in which were transported the military utensils. The blew up and burnt up the trains. All their attacks always were successful, but they suffered the losses in the wounded and killed men. When they made these expeditions - they went without personal documents, in this way that on the case of death the member from organization - the Germans had not the name of killed person.

Once it took place in the month of April this year, the house on Plac Zelaznej Bramy Nr.3, in which lived my friend, Stach, was surrounded by the German gendarmes and members of German secret police "Gestapo". They came in two great motor-cars, on which were placed the hard machine-guns. Every gendarme and policeman had the manual automatic carbine, which in dialect of Warsaw, was named "pulverizer". In this time my friend Stach was attend at home. He returned just after the service in Police, and rested, making the cigarettes. Somebody knocked to the door. My friend opened and saw two officers from "Gestapo". They asked, who here lives, and when they got a information that he is a policemen,they ordered to him to accompany for them. He dressed himself, and went out. The German gendarmes and policemen made in all flats the search. All people were driven on the courtyard, where they were legitimated and stood with the raised hands. One part of gendarmes broke the closed cellars, looking for the arms and ammunition. The second part searched in private flats, and had the occasion: to steal all this, what was precious. And my friend made the wandering from the fifth floor till the ground-floor. He accompanied to these officers, and though they saw the great sums of money, and jewelry - they gave nothing.

When my friend was together with them on the fourth floor, where lived, he said that here live only the poor people. Meanwhile here lived the tradesmen and merchants, even wealthy. Thanks to my friend in many lodgings was not the search. But he and his wife were very troubled. In their flat were the grenades and the Polish secret newspapers. They were lying in the wardrobe along the linen. The wife of my friend - Mrs. Stefa (who today there is in Germany Waldenburg-Schlesien, "Baustoff" Schliffach 25) trembled from the fright. In this moment Stach also trembled. But the search in this house had a good end. The Germans arrested only two men and took many, many different things.

Of course, when my friend returned home, he burnt up the Polish secret press, and the grenades brought to the appointed place. This time I did not get the illegal press, which was like by me.

During the military action at Zoliborz, to one Polish group was sent our friend, Stephen Plotka. In this action Stach did not take a part. The named Stephen Plotka, who descended from Posen, where there is his family, lived at this uncle. His uncle, wanting to preserve him, brought him from Posen when here took place the arrests and sending of Poles. From this time he stayed in Warsaw and worked in the magazine with the woman's hats. He was only twenty years old. And though he was still young - he worked in Polish secret organization. He had many friends, but between these the most dear to him were: Wlodek Denkowski, Zbyszek, "Maly" and Stach. Young Stephen, how I mentioned already was appointed to the second group, which got the order from their commander: to attack the German motor-cars with six high policeman from "Gestapo". Six Polish soldiers, though they were in civil uniforms, attacked six well armed German. The motor-car stood. It began the hard shooting. The Germans, who had the automatic arms, shot tightly. The shooting lasted near twenty minutes. In result four Germans fell. Then two last Germans with the grenades and automatic carbines went out from the motor-car and came near to the place, where hid themselves Poles. After the performance of task, the commander of Polish group ordered to withdraw itself. It was the open field, because the quarter Zoliborz is not tightly built. Stephen wanted to pass the hedge, and when he resolved to leap down, one ball hit in his temple. He was killed on the place and fell down. It took place on Thursday on fifteenth of June, this year. (12)

The rest of Poles happily withdrew itself, but on the place of fight stayed poor and young Stephen. The news about his death was terrible for all, first of all to his uncle, to his friends: Wlodek, Stach, Zbyszek, "Maly", and especially to his fiancee, Miss Halinka.

The body of Stephen the Germans sent to the mortuary on Oczki-Street.

Because at this mortuary was a funeral office, our organizations were in the constant contact with this office, which organized the burials. Simply the Polish organization bought off the bodies of their members. The funeral office buried the young Polish soldiers, and inscribed them to the church-books. Of course the name of killed Poles were changed, that the families were not persecuted by Germans.

From the mortuary the body of Stephen was brought to the chapel on Wspolna-Street, where he was lying to the nineteenth of June. This day took place the funeral of poor Stephen. But on Saturday we saw him. When Mrs. Stefa, my wife, Stach, and I were in the chapel - we wept. Poor Stephen had the unimportant wound in the temple, from which dropped yet the blood. I shall never forget this time, when we were in the chapel.

After death of Stephen my friend Stach was nervous. He did not want even to work further in the organization. But soon the life went further and was quite normal. It is a great pity. Stephen did not wait the moment of beautiful insurrection in Warsaw. Only his friends survived these heroic days. Between these there is also Stach, who during the insurrection, got the nomination at the second-lieutenant.

Today he there is in German military camp. Here is his address: Second-Lieutenant Stanislaw Nowak Gefangenennummer 224781 Lager-Bezeichnung: M. - Stammlager XB Deutschland (Allemagne).

From the nomination of my friend I am very, very glad. He made very much for Poland, and Poland rewarded him, giving him this distinction. Hour work, dear Stach, was duly appreciated. I believe that you fought well and bravely; so as many, many other insurgents. -

Tuesday, the twelfth of December, 1944.

Today, my wife and I went to Pruszkow, where we threw three post-cards to our friend Stefa, and one to the commander of military camp, where stays Stach Nowak. In this card I request about the cards from my friend, because the prisoners of war have the special letters and cards.

Also we paid a visit at Mr. and Mrs. Marciniak, who were satisfied from this that Stach lives. Marciniak gave me some coal, which I placed in my portfolio. He promised me to send to Stefa a parcel with provisions.

Today Mrs. Wala, my wife, and I went to the woods after the wood. Also today went to us my sister-in-law, Wanda, with her little daughter Joasia. She said us that she and her family will live in Checiny near town Kielce. Here she took a room for seventy Zlotys. -

I did not go to Domaniewo to the digging of trench, because I am tired. -

Wednesday, the thirteenth of December, 1944.

My wife and I went to family Zagrodzkich to Podkowa Lesna Glowna, where we saw my sister, Leonarda, and my brother, Gotfryd.

Mr. Stephen said me that I ought to go to Rakow, where works his son, Leon. Only in this way I shall get the certificate of work. Therefore I resolved with Bobus Zagrodzki to go to Leon next day. The workmen, who are employed in the building's firm of engineer Sturm, very often go in the assist of German to Warsaw, from where they bring the different things and pieces of furniture. I suppose that if I shall work in this firm I shall can bring my private things, of course if they will be yet in the cellar on Nowy Swiat-Street Nr. 22. I know that these things certainly are stolen by the German, who mastered this quarter still in the seventh of September.

Bobus Zagrodzki said me that he will come to me tomorrow. -

Thursday, the fourteenth of December, 1944.

I went with Bobus Zagrodzki to Rakow, where Mr. Zaleski and Leon Zagrodzki caused that I got my desired certificate of work. I am very satisfied because it certificate will watch me before the catchings.

When I returned home - I showed my certificate to Mrs. Mieczyslawa and to my wife. They were glad. -

Friday, the fifteenth of December, 1944.

My wife and I went to Podkowa Lesna Glowna to family Zagrodzkich, which lives at Mr. and Mrs. Corradini on Parkowa-Street in villa "Jugawa". At Mrs. and Mrs. Zagrodzkich there is my sister, Leonarda, who cooks, and my brother, Gotfryd, who is a great friend of this family.

At Mr. and Mrs. Zagrodzcy we feel ourselves always very well. They are cordial and hospitable. Also very nice are Mr. and Mrs. Corradini, their young son, Zdzislaw, who is already a widower and who has three little girls and Miss Olga, who now is a governess. Word by word all inhabitants of villa "Jugawa" are nice and sympathetic.

After the dinner and several wine-glasses of brandy, we remembered the past time, when we were in our own lodgings. My brother played piano. This time he played Polish national melodies, and "Jeszcze Polska nie zginela", "I Brygade", "Rote", and "Warszawianke". These melodies we did not hear long ago. And therefore they made the great impression.

Miss Olga, who likes us, procured about three cards of provision, which get the inhabitants of Podkowa Lesna Glowna, and other spots. She gave to us these cards, wanting in this way to help to us. We were astonished that she has so good heart. I thanked for her. We shall get more bread, because on these cards the Germans give to Poles only the bread. We are satisfied that we shall have sufficiently the bread.

My sister, who knows our material situation, gave to us the lace of the gold teeth. She wants that these to sell. She will that bought the bacon, because we have not the fat. Poor sister gave her last teeth to poor her brother and her sister-in-law, Sophie.

From Podkowa Lesna Glowna we went out with delay, because so named Treuhänder, director of E.K.D., of course a German - Krause - organized on the stations the catchings at the persons, who travel gratis. These, who were caught, paid the mandate and were sent to well-disciplined camp. What a barbarity! In this way poor Polish railway-guards lost their source of revenue. The passengers till this time paid to the conductors and, did not take the tickets. Because the railway-guards earn very few - the passengers helped to them. But - I suppose - somebody denounced - and a German Krause gave out the new orders. At present the Polish conductors will have the need. And soon will come the Christmas.

The German authorities, especially the starost (13) in Sochaczew, Mr. Schen, ordered the catchings in Brwinow and in Milanowek. At seven o'clock in the morning these spots were surrounded by the hard posts of German gendarmes. The other groups of gendarmes went to the houses and legitimated all inhabitants. During this revision (14) and legitimation took place the accidents of robbery and theft. The gendarmes took the precious things, money and even the beautiful carpets and crystals. Furious starost Schen accompanied to the gendarmes. All life in Milanowek and in Brwinow were paralyzed. All shops, restaurants, coffee-houses, private factories were shut, and poor people hid themselves. In spite of the Germans caught in Milanowek seven great motor-cars: four with young women, and three with men. Instead in Brwinow four motor-cars with women and men. All these motor-cars went to Sochaczew, and from here to Reich.

Today four Russian aeroplanes, which very often fly upon our sides, attacked near Nadarzyn the Polish groups, which are employed by the digging of trench. In this moment here worked near two thousands Poles: women, men, girls and boys. The Russian pirates lowered themselves and began their criminal shooting. In result eleven persons were killed, and four wounded by the Soviet barbarians. This accident will not bring the glory to Soviet Russia, which is not only by Poles, but also by all European nations hated and odious. Polish society hates Soviet Russia, and its regime. We do not wait at Russians. We do not want to see them on our earth. -

Saturday, the sixteenth of December, 1944.

I wanted to go to Milanowek that to sell the gold lace of teeth, which I got yesterday from my sister. I went even to Podkowa Lesna Zachodnia, but the conductors preceded the passengers that Milanowek was anew surrounded by the Germans. Therefore almost all passengers went out from the train. I went on foot to Podkowa Lesna Glowna to family Zagrodzkich, and borrowed two hundred Zlotys from Mr. Stephen.

At family Zagrodzkich and Corradini I spent very nice two hours, because to them came two men, their acquaintances, who belonged to the Country Army. One from them yesterday returned from the camp in Warsaw, where he worked hard. He told very curious things, about which I shall write later.

In Podkowa Lesna Glowna I bought eighty dekagrams of meat for eighty and eight Zlotys, and twenty five dekagrams of lard for ninety Zlotys.

I came back to Nowa Wies. My wife prepared me the diner: the potatoes with lard and with sour cabbage.

Today we got three post-cards from Mrs. Stefa Kuprewicz, and the second letter from my friend, Francis Szarek, who there is in German slavery. He wrote to us very nice letter, informing us that he wants to help to us. Therefore he wants to send us to one estate. His friend, who also stays in slavery, has in this estate his son-in-law, to whom he will write soon. This proposal of my friend, Francis, is very good. And if it will be realized - it will be well.

My friend is sorrowed on account of death of Miss Krysia Ziolkowska, who was killed during the insurrection in Warsaw. He asks for about the exact information of the terrible death of young and pretty Krysia, who was his sympathy.

Instead our friend Stefa informed us that she left her last place of stay in Waldenburg at Silesia, and goes to the new work near Posen. Here she will work by the digging of trench. Now she sleeps in the barn, where there is the cattle. She suffers the hunger and it is cold to her. Here is her new address: Stefania Kuprewicz, Feldpost Breslau II Unternehman Bartold IV/22 Noldau, Kreis Namslau.

Today began the evacuation of hospitals in Piastow, Pruszkow, and Wlochy. I am afraid that in short time we shall be obliged to leave our place of stay, because the Germans will drive us to the unknown course. It can take place yet before Christmas. -

With my wife I went to the woods and brought the wood. -

Sunday, the seventeenth of December, 1944.

I wrote the post-cards to our friend Stefa Kuprewicz, and the letter - to friend Francis Szarek. I threw my post to the box of post in Pruszkow.

Today we went to my family in Podkowa Lesna Glowna, where we spent three hours.

My wife is sad and crying. She told me: Why we are so poor? Why we cannot buy the lard, the meat, and the bread? I cannot her to answer.

I have my mouth shut. I know that we are now poor, and have nothing.

We observe the life on the streets, in the train, in the shops. And we see the rich men, who buy and eat all. Why is so? Why I cannot enter to the shop that to buy this, what I want. My wife likes the ham with roll. Why I cannot present to her a quarter of kilogram of ham, though it is dear. Why the other man can to and take these, what he wants to eat. One hungry, and the second - satiated. Such is order of this world. The people are poor and rich. And I with my wife belong to the other group. I believe that we shall be still rich, but to survive the misfortune it is very hard. I should like to have many money. I do not like a money. But I should like to eat all, what I wish. I want to give all to my dear wife, but I cannot, and therefore I revolt myself very often.

My dear Zosienka, I believe that will come the time, when I shall buy and eat all. -

Monday, the eighteenth of December, 1944.

I went to Milanowek, where I sold the gold lace of teeth, which I got from my sister, Leonarda. This lace weighted three and half grams. I got nine hundred and eighty Zlotys.

I gave back two hundred Zlotys to Mr. Stephen Zagrodzki, who borrowed me these on Saturday. From Miss Halinka, who came back from Mszczonow with the smuggle, I bought eighty dekagrams of lard for 256 Zlotys, and a quarter of liter of oil for 62.50 Zlotys.

For my work by the digging of great trench in Domaniewo I got premium's acquittance Nr. 146.063. For a worked week I shall get gratis: one kilogram sugar, one kilogram salt, thirty cigarettes, and 1/4 liter of brandy. This work, how I knew now, was led by Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei - Arbeitsbereich Generalgouvernment. I should not like to have it premium, that do not work more. -

Tuesday, the nineteenth of December, 1944.

I went to Grodzisk Mazowiecki, where I got in company "Rolnik" for my work by the digging of trench in Domaniewo: the sugar, the salt, the brandy, and the cigarettes. When I got these things, I paid a visit at Mrs. Helena Sliwinska, who lives on Radonska-Street Nr. 32. Mrs Helena gave me a post-card from Mrs. Stefa Kuprewicz, who there is and works in Reich.

Then I went to Podkowa Lesna Glowna to family Zagrodzkich. Mrs Wiera invited my wife and me at Christmas-Eve. I promised to bring three Christmas-trees to Olenka, to Mrs. Wiera, and to Mr. Zdzislaw Corradini. -

Wednesday, the twentieth of December, 1944.

I went to the woods that to find the Christmas trees, but I could not find. Therefore, I went further to the woods, which there is near Otebusy. Here at last I found very beautiful trees, which were cut off by me.

After the dinner I went in the train of E.K.D. to Podkowa Lesna Glowna to family Zagrodzkich. Mrs. Wiera and Olenka were satisfied from my Christmas-trees. I made to them the great pleasure.

When I returned home my sister gave to me some onions, and sweets. -

In all Polish press was published the last great speech of British premier Winston Churchill. In this speech Churchill said that England never guaranteed to Poland its future border-lines, and declared at the same time that Eastern Confines together with Lwow and Wilno must belong to Soviet Russia.

Premier Churchill demanded from Polish emigration government in London that it ought to accept all Russian demands, declaring that on the contrary the diplomatic connections between English government and Polish cabinet of premier Arciszewski will succumb to the great changes.

The speech of British premier Churchill called out in the international press, and in all the world the great sensation.

The last speech of premier Churchill has very great political importance, because England, throwing away all solemn guarantees and assurances in the Polish question, took at present entirely the course of Bolshevistic and robbery politics.

Premier Churchill said ironically: "England never guaranteed to Poland any definite border." Because it was not reached the agreement between Polish and Soviet government, the third part of Poland must be given to Soviet Russia - declared Churchill. In this way England, which sacrificed Poland, capitulated before the Bolshevism.

Churchill underlined that the loosening of Polish problem was rendered difficult by the government of U.S.A., which did not want to take the precise point of view. Churchill cannot understand, how present Polish government could throw away several times the proposal of acknowledgement of Curzon line. He advised to Polish emigrants to reach the agreement with Moscow in the question of future eastern line, "before Soviet Russia will sign the final pact with Poland."

It is very well known that premier Arciszewski throws away the line of Curzon, and refers at the guarantees of England, and at the Atlantic Card.

Meanwhile premier Churchill assured that he acknowledges "yet" the Polish cabinet in London as the government, whereby underlined the word "yet", what called out the applause in Izba Gmin. (15) U.S.A. acknowledge yet Polish government in London, but Soviet Russia does not acknowledge already.

Premier Churchill with great pity mentioned "The immortal merits" of ex-premier Mikolajczyk, who "was a one Polish politician, who could attain the agreement with Moscow." At present, when this important politician resigned, premier Churchill does not see that was reached the agreement between Polish government in London and "Polish" committee in Lublin.

At last he said: "From the necessity the authority of committee in Lublin will grow, but from the need of agreement between Polish government in London and Soviet Union can accomplish to this, that the connection of going forward Bolshevistic forces will take the character, which can be painful for all Poles."

Old English fox took off a mask, and in the short, brutal words pronounced the friendship to "the most true" ally.

Premier of Great Britain declared that England never guaranteed to Poland the border-lines. Or all was a gold dream. All solemn English guarantees, which were given to Poland by England in 1939 year. Without these guarantees Poland never began the war with Reich. All Polish hopes at the help and protection of Great Britain were a dream. We had the hopes through whole six years. Today our gold dream dispersed itself. After it remained only the bitterness of deception, and the painful remembrance of constant and solid humiliation and abasement.

I must to ask for: Why and to whom poured itself the sea of Polish dear blood? Why our City was burnt and ruined? Why the enormity of misfortune and misery survive now thousands of harmless Polish women, men and children?

This all is rather the cruel night-mare, for which still today pay Poles not only in Poland, but also abroad, on the strange earth. Today Polish officers and soldiers are sent on the different fronts, and on the most dangerous clips die. Polish blood is to England very cheap. It blood can buy for the promises and "guarantees", which later Mr. Churchill with cold blood recalls.

Churchill already nothing more guarantees to Poles, but he wants to be for the future their "friend". This time he retires with good English advises. He shakes the bloody Bolshevistic hands, and whispers in the ear of red Stalin the assurances of his condescension, and at the same time he invites all Poles to ... the Soviet Paradise.

Churchill promises to future Poland, without Eastern Confines, Lwow, Wilno - East Prussia. Meanwhile not long ago the neutral press wrote that England agreed that if Reich will be defeated, Soviet Russia will annex just East Prussia. The Soviet press gave to the understanding that it province has to be a booty of Moscow.

What it means all? Where there is a truth? I see only the lie. England and its politicians know where it is necessary to lie. And therefore Poles lost the hope that England in future will say a truth. -

Thursday, the twenty and first of December, 1944.

With Bobus Zagrodzki I went to Rakow, where works his brother, Leon. Here I got two pieces of bread (2 kg), some butter and cheese. I took also near forty kilograms of coal, which I placed in my knapsack. From the bread and from the coal I was very satisfied.

At five o'clock together with Leon Zagrodzki and with workmen we went in the great motor-car, which always transports them after the work, to Ursus. That to shorten our way to Opacz, we arrived to Ursus. In this moment was arranged the alarm. The Soviet aeroplanes flew in the air. All workmen got out from the motor-car. Bobus and I went on foot in course to Michalowice. Meanwhile, the Russian apparatus highlighted all town. We hurried quickly, supposing that the Russian pirates will bombard it town. The bombarded, but the German posts, which there are in and near Warsaw.

My baggage was heavy. The coal, which there was in my knapsack, gravitated me. At last we attained the spot Michalowice, and the train of E.K.D., which brought us home. My wife was happy from presents: from bread, butter, and first of all for coal. In the flat we are warm. -

Friday, the twenty and second, December, 1944.

Early in the morning I went in the train of E.K.D. to Podkowa Lesna Glowna, to Bobus Zagrodzki. When I came, almost all were sleeping. My sister Leonarda prepared the breakfast: the coffee with milk, and white bread. The material situation of family Zagrodzkich is hard, because Mr. Stephen does not work. He wanted to get the work, but till this time the Germans do not give the answer. And therefore Mr. Stephen is obliged to sell his last previous things. Lately he sold the gold bracelet for fifteen thousand Zlotys. He gave out the borrowed money, he bought a half ton of coal for three thousand Zlotys, and he has only three thousand. He was a rich man, but by the insurrection he became a poor man.

With Bobus I went to Grodzisk Mazowiecki. Already in the train I knew that today at nine o'clock in the morning one Russian bomb-aeroplane threw down three bombs. Several persons were wounded. Two bombs did not explode.

When we came nearer Grodzisk Mazowiecki, the little boys, who sell the newspapers, alarmed all passengers that Grodzisk Mazowiecki, especially the great traffics were surrounded by the German gendarmes and Ukrainians, who serve in German army. All passengers left the train, and resolved to return.

Meanwhile from the suburb came the refugees, who hid themselves before the great battues. The said that near parson's home the Germans killed three young men, who wanted to run away. The German bandits shot the harmless Poles. Why? Why they catch and torture so Poles? So make only the barbarians and hangmen!

Seeing, what it happens in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, we returned to Podkowa Lesna Zachodnia, from where we went on foot to Milanowek. Here was not a great traffic, though from Christmas divides us only two days.

Bobus and I sold our counterpane, the old shoes and trousers, and bought the bread, the cream to the hands and face "Rem". Because this cream was made before the war - we bought two boxes. I took only two boxes - one for my wife as the present for Christmas, and one for me.

Because we freezed ourselves, we left Milanowek going home.

At home my dear wife gave me a dinner: the cakes from potatoes, which were roasted at the oil. Today it is the fast. (16)

After dinner I had my dessert: two post-cards from Stefa Kuprewicz, who there is in Reich, and from our devoted friends Zosia and Francis Jamry, who stay in Czestochowa. Mrs. Stefa wrote very hearty cards, and remembers past Christmas, when we were together. She begs about the white bread and about the fat. We want to send to her a parcel with provisions, but the post-offices do not take the parcels to Reich. We look for the other way that to send to her these things.

The post-card from Zosia Jamry, who is liked by us, is very, very nice. She is true and sincere. From the flight from the temporary camp in Pruszkow, she and her husband, Francis, worked hard in hospital in Czestochowa. Her material situation is hard. She run away in the summer's clothes, losing all. Now, from three weeks, she and her husband work in their profession. They work as the artists. She is a vaudeville artist, and he is a musician-violinist. We are happy that they work and their material situation is some better. Zosienka writes that she remembers always with all her heart the past time, when she with her husband went to us at the dinners. I remember very well all nice moments, which we spent together. I should like that we together spent yet the same time.

Zosienka writes that her sister, Marysienka, will be soon married, and therefore they will live alone. Zosienka invites us to her. Today she and her husband Francis make with other artists the tour in the district of Kielce.

Zosienka Jamry made to us very great pleasure, writing very hearty card. Soon I shall answer at her card. -

Saturday, the twenty and third of December, 1944.

The church authorities ordered Christmas-Eve on Saturday, because in Sunday it has not a lent. My wife and I are invited by family Zagrodzkich at Christmas-Eve. I bought one kilogram of apples, which we gave to Mrs. Wiera Zagrodzka.

At three o'clock p.m. we were already in Podkowa Lesna Glowna, at family Zagrodzkich. The weather is fine. It is frosty.

Christmas-Eve at Mr. and Mrs. Zagrodzcy was very frugal, such, what it ought to be. We had very frugal dishes. However, they are poor, they are ruined by the insurrection of Warsaw.

Christmas-Eve was first sad. We divided themselves with oplatek. (17) All were crying. Olenka Rajchert, the young daughter of Mrs. and Mrs. Zagrodzcy, lost in Good Friday this year her husband, and my friend Bogus Rajchert. He was killed by the bandits. Now she is a young widow, because she is twenty and two years old. She has a beautiful and nice little daughter, Sylvia, who is a aim on her sad life. Instead the husband of old daughter of family Zagrodzkich, Barbara, there is in a camp in Reich, and was taken by Germans during the insurrection in Warsaw. Mr. Humbert Corradini lost during the insurrection his dear son, Stanislaw, who is married. Stanislaw Corradini, who took part in the insurrection as the insurgent and who belonged to the Country Army, remained beautiful wife, Mrs. Hanka, and a little child. Also, the young son, Zdzislaw Corradini, is without wife, who died. He has three pretty daughters. And therefore common Christmas-Eve was sad. All wept.

After four years my wife and I spent Christmas together with my sister, Leonarda, and with my brother, Gotfryd. Till this time they were in Pinsk. Now the fate threw them on the strange terrain. In the past year, they had their Christmas in the family town. Today it is otherwise.

After the supper my brother played piano different beautiful Christmas-carols, and we sang. The he played the works of Chopin, Grieg, List, Beethoven, Rachmaninow, and other composers. The concert of my brother was so splendid that he was obliged to play very long. In this way Christmas-Eve continued to three o'clock in the morning, next day.

Today, when the families of Corradini, Zagrodzkich, their domestics, and we spent Christmas-eve in very nice atmosphere - my thoughts went to my sister, Jane, and her children, to my brother, Bohdan, to my uncle, Joseph, who stays in Pinsk, to my brother-in-law, John, who there is in the well-disciplined camp in Oswiecim. I think about my sister, brother, brother-in-law. I do not know, where they there are, or they are living. I think about my friends: Stach Nowak, who is as officer of Country Army in the German military camp, about Stefa Kuprewicz, who there is in camp in Reich, and who works so hard, about Francis Szarek, who there is five years in German slavery, about Wlodek Denkowski, who fought in Warsaw, about Zosia and Francis Jamry, who there are in Czestochowa, about family Sobieszczanscy, especially about Zosia, who was very wise and nice girl. I think about all friends, who I made the acquaintance at family Sobieszczanscy, and about many, many others.

I think about all poor Varsovians, who were driven by the Germans from their flats in Warsaw. I think about all Poles, who are in Reich, who work hard there, about all, who there are in well-disciplined camps, and who suffer the tortures.

I think about Polish soldiers, who fight on all fronts of Europe, and who die for Poland.

I think about Polish suffering and martyrdom, about Polish nation, who first in this year there is under the terrible Russian occupation. Poles, who there are on the second side of a river Vistula, today spend Christmas-Eve under the mark of red Star. Here are the Bolsheviks, who torture the Polish nation. Their Christmas-Eve is completely other than in past year.

How a great change! How a great our suffering after the ruin of Warsaw, our dear City, which was so splendid.

I think about this all, and my heart suffers. I cannot understand, what a great politic changes took place in this year. But I believe that next Christmas-Eve will be better than present. About this think all Poles, who suffer, and who groan to the liberty, which will not come to us. -

Sunday, the twenty and fourth of December, 1944.

The past night we spent at family Zagrodzkich. My wife slept together with Olenka, and I - with my brother Gotfryd, and with Bobus Zagrodzki.

We stood up very late - namely at eleven o'clock in the morning.

My sister prepared the breakfast, and then the dinner. This day we spent in the very nice atmosphere, and went out from Podkowa Lesna Glowna at sex o'clock p.m. -

Monday, the twenty and fifth of December, 1944.

Christmas! The first day of Christmas. Christmas is a holiday of pleasure, joy, peace, and love. All Christian world solemn celebrates it holiday in order to the honor of the birth of This, who brought with him the new teaching of love and forgiveness.

In every Polish home, in the period of Christmas there is the Christmas-tree, which is decorated with different candles, sweets, and toys. In the Christmas-Eve the Christmas-tree is lighted. The Christmas-tree is a symbol of union.

Christmas! The holiday of peace. But where are the peace and love. The man did not love the peace. All the world was shaken with the catastrophe of war, which brought the death to the harmless people, the misery, fire and ruin. Only stayed the unalterable and joyful holiday of Christmas - the holiday of arrival at the world of Christ. In this day all people want to be a people. And the man calls: "The peace to the people of good will!"

In spite of special times, which we survive now, in spite of whole horror and threatening of war - in all the souls and hearts fires itself deeply the ray of clearness and brightness. Maybe it is the reminiscence of far and old times. Maybe it is the healthy instinct of life, which there is in us.

All people as well as poor and rich apply for to have though one day for them, for their families. And just the holiday of Christmas establish these days. All people with great intense longing wait at this day that to spend it in the company of the most dear persons and friends. Nevertheless it is the day of joy as well as to the children and to the adult persons.

Today it is a very great yearly solemnity and festivity, the great holiday of family. But in this year almost in every family it is wanting the most dear and near person. And therefore the tears flow from the tormented eyes. Our dreaming runs to our dear persons, our dreaming runs far, because more than one our dreaming did not fulfil itself.

Present Christmas are with out a comparison less solemn and joyful than past Christmas. All country there is under two occupation: Russian and German. All country is ruined. All Polish society is dispersed in all the world. The merciless war moved many, many millions of Poles. This are very unpleasant and disagreeable remembrances. With the past Christmas we united many, many faith. We believed that the past Christmas will be the last Christmas of War. In the past year when it was a Christmas, we thought that Christmas in 1944 year will be better. Meanwhile it is completely otherwise. Meanwhile the course of political accidents changed the total situation. It followed the tragedy of Warsaw. Our heroic insurrection fell down. Our great allies made to usa deception. Their politics was deceptive. And therefore our brave insurgents were obliged to capitulate after the fight, which lasted two months. And therefore present Christmas is so sad and tragic. But in spite of so great and painful psychic survivals it is not necessary to doubt to despair, and to fall down. It is necessary to live. Warsaw, which is ruined and burnt by the Germans, will anew rebuilt. Warsaw will be more beautiful then it was. And in new Warsaw will be the new life. It will come after ten years, of course, after the end of this terrible war. The new generation will be a witness of new splendid Polish life.

After the ruin of insurrection present Christmas is especially sad to us. Many, many thousand of good Poles died for Poland. Many, many families are diminished. Many, many women and men are a widow. Many children are a orphans.

I believe that Polish society after the hard moral blows which experienced and suffered, has the new hopes, and believes that this Christmas is last Christmas, which is celebrated during the war. Now it is necessary only to endure this terrible period, the period of hard trial. We believe in the victory of the good upon the evil. And this war is a fight of the good with the evil. At present, when we have the first day of Christmas, we have the childish faith and confidence in the justice of Good God, which so many times protected before the doubt. Only Good God will protect us before the defeat, because Polish nation believes in God. Our nation is a Catholic nation, and our religion is the most dear and beautiful from all religions. And there fore we must to believe, first of all to believe.

Sixth Christmas of war - I suppose _ will be last Christmas of war. -

Today I went to Pruszkow, to church. I was attend at the mass, and observed the Crib of God Child. Then I went to the post-office, where I threw two post-cards to Zosia Jamry in Czestochowa, and to Mrs.Stefa Kuprewicz, who there is in Reich. Also I paid a visit at my friend, Kazimierz Marciniak, who serves in Polish police. To Mr. and Mrs. Marciniak came together ten guests. Mrs. Marciniak prepared a dinner. Long ago I did not eat so savory dishes. I shall enumerate these dishes, which I ate: the sausage, the pork, the ham, the lettuce from vegetable, the veal, the brandy and different sweets. I was some tipsy and completely satiated. The dinner was really splendid. It is a pity that my wife was not attend at family Marciniak.

When I ate these dishes, I thought, yet are the rich people, while the other suffer the hunger. -

Tuesday, the twenty and sixth of December, 1944.

Today is the name-day of Mr. Stephen Zagrodzki. Yearly my wife and I pay a visit at Mr. Stephen, and put our best wishes. In the past year I was at Mr. Stephen, who lived yet in Warsaw on Jerozolimskie-alley Nr. 9. Then was many, many guests. always we spent very nice time. The atmosphere was hearty. Mr. Stephen had many friends and acquaintances. He made for the people always well. As the engineer he earned very much, but he was not a egoist. He is an philanthropist. He was a wealthy man, and therefore always he helped to the poor people. In his life he lost six times his fortune. Lately he lost all during the insurrection of Warsaw. He lost his pretty flat, which establishes itself from four rooms, one antechamber, and one kitchen. He lost all his pieces of furniture, all his things, all his linen. But not only. His family lost all. Besides, he found himself together with his son, Leon, in Warsaw, when broke out the insurrection. His family there was then in Piastow, as well as with my brother, Gotfryd, and sister, Leonarda, who went there before the great catchings to the work to the digging of the trench around Warsaw. Instead Mr. Stephen and his son there were in the office on Frascati-Street Nr. 1. And when the insurrection began itself, they were obliged to stay in the office. Next day, namely on the second of August, they were driven away by the Germans, and conducted to the building of old Polish Parliament. Here in a small room found themselves sixty and six men, who stood without food and water. It was sultry. The Polish prisoners could not sleep and lie. They stood, because it was not a place that even to sit. After two days they got some soup, coffee and bread. But continually was very sultry. Leon Zagrodzki who is weak, fainted. It was not the air. That to open the door, of course, on a short moment, Mr. Stephen gave to the overseer his own watch. Then overseer opened the door.

Mr. Stephen and his son, Leon, were here till the sixteenth of August, and later were driven from Warsaw. They had a luck. They avoided the provisory camp in Pruszkow, and went on foot to Piastow, where there was his family. Their arrival made the great joy and pleasure to all. Mrs. Wiera Z., Olenka, Bobus, Basia, my sister and my brother, family Olejczyk - were happy.

Now Mr. Stephen is poor and suffers with his family's needs. But he is happy. He has all members of family. My wife and I like him. And therefore, I bought the spirit, the sugar, and the eggs. My wife prepared very splendid cognac, which we offered to Mr. Stephen. It was our frugal present. Mr. Stephen thanked, kissing us. His wife, Mrs. Wiera treated us with sweets. Also to Mr. Stephen came many acquaintances, but this time Mr. Stephen was sad. He arrived just from Grodzisk Mazowiecki, together with Mrs. Granatowicz, of whom husband was killed by the Russian bomb. Namely four days ago the Russian air-pirates bombarded Grodzisk Mazowiecki. During this bombardment were killed thirty persons, and between those there was Mr. Granatowicz, who worked there. His wife in this time was in Skierniewice, and when her husband died, she got the wire. The wire went three days. She came to Grodzisk with provisions, but her husband was already deceased. And today just took place the funeral of killed Granatowicz. Mr. Stephen returned home together with his son, Bobus, and with Mrs. Granatowicz. -

Today went to us my brother,, Gotfryd. My wife prepared the dinner. We drank several brandies. -

Today past twenty and four years, when died my dear mother, Waleria. When she died, I was only eight years old. It took place on the second day of Christmas in 1920 year in Pinsk. My dear mother died from typhoid fever. To us came one Polish soldier, who asked about the passing the night. My mother agreed, and gave her bed. Next day, when this soldier went out, and thought my mother changed the bedding, the louse bit her. And my mother fell ill. The best doctors, who were to the disposal of my father, Francis, made all that to save my mother. But no doctors, no medicines helped. My mother died at eight o'clock in the evening. My older sister, Leonarda, from this time began the duties of hostess. She replaced my died mother. Instead the young sister, Jane, who worked in municipal-council, cared about me and my brother Bohdan. And when in 1922, my brother, Gotfryd, came back from Russia to Poland, he interested with the education of me and my brother.

The death of my dear mother was to me very great and hard occurrence in my life. She gave me the education, and made from me a man. Today I thank to her. I shall never forget this.

Wednesday, the twenty and seventh of December, 1944.

I went to Rakow, where worked Leon Zagrodzki, wanting to buy the different personal things at the trade. But I got nothing. I took from Leon two kilograms of bread, some cheese, and ten kilograms of coal. With these things I returned home. -

Thursday, the twenty and eighth of December, 1944.

The Bolsheviks, who there are on the Polish terrains on the East from Curzon-line, began the decolonization. They decolonize all Poles, who are under the new terrible Russian occupation. The Bolsheviks use in this way three mediums: at first - all young Poles are mobilized to the Red Army, at second - the Russians began the great deportation of Polish society to the depth of Russia, at third - between "Polish" communistic committee in Lublin, which pretends to official Polish government, and Lithuanian, White-Russian and Ukrainian governments, which were formed by Soviet Russia, were closed the agreements. On the strength of these agreement all Poles will be forcibly dislocated on the West from Curzon-line.

On the strength of agreement with Lithuania, all Poles will be obliged to leave the Wilno district before the first of April 1945 year. Till the fifteenth of January 1945 year, all Poles must leave Lwow. So ordered the president of council ministers of Soviet Ukraine. We know very well, what will look out this deportation.

In all schools of eastern Poland were introduced the Soviet programs of teaching. On the West from the Curzon-line nominally performs the authority the administration, which is chosen by the "Polish" communistic committee in Lublin. Instead "Polish" committee in Lublin there is under the complete control of Russian secret police N.K.W.D. Kremlin respects this committee, and wants to make the official Polish government from it, that to waste the Polish government in London, which is acknowledged almost by all the world. And though Moscow respects the committee in Lublin, at the same time reproaches that it does not work hard and thoroughly. On all the terrain, on which the committee in Lublin governs - reign the chaotic connections, because the Polish population in spite of Russian propaganda does not acknowledge this committee for the legal authority. The mobilization of many annals to the "Polish" army of "General" Berling completely missed. Because "Committee" is not acknowledged by Polish society, the Bolsheviks use the terrible terror. And if somebody sincerely shows his fidelity to the legal Polish government in London - is arrested as the fascist. In spite of help, which showed the Polish Country Army to Russia, attacking the German forces in different towns, the Russian authorities arrest and shoot the member of this army. Only in one month of October the Russian arrested and located in the well-disciplined camps twenty and one thousand of harmless Poles. It is the official Russian information.

The Soviet partisans, who worked before the invasion of Russian section to Poland, had only one task: to gather the information about Polish Country Army and its leaders. When Polish government in London order to Polish armies to co-work with Russian partisans - the Bolsheviks began the arrests and shootings. After the occupation of different part of Poland by Red Army - the Russian partisans were located in different special formation or in "Folks Army". Two of these formation are subdued to Russian secret police N.K.W.D. Instead N.K.W.D. took on the East from the river of Bug the administration, introduced the Russian value, and forbade the every religious activity.

All Poles, who are till sixty year old, and all Polish women, who are till fifty and five years old - got the mobilization's cards.

All members of Polish secret organization and Polish Country Army were arrested and shot. N.K.W.D. began anew the great deportations of civil population in the dimensions from the years 1939-1941.

Curzon-line, behind which happen these histories and accidents is watched by the Bolsheviks so strictly that none Pole can pass it. On the West from the river Bug, the Bolsheviks cultivate the same politics, but all the orders they order to fulfil to "Polish authorities". These "Polish authorities" represents Boleslaw Bierut, the old member of Comintern. Before communist Boleslaw Bierut are responsible: "The Polish" communistic committee in Lublin, the national council(!) and "Polish" forces under the command of "commander-in-chief" General Rola-Zymierski. All orders and dispositions of communist Bierut contra-assigns "General" Zymierski, but fulfills its N.K.W.D. Here take place the arrests. The whole private property is confiscated. The secret and underground activity is acknowledged now unlegal. It was formed the special tribunal, which judges these Poles, who led the anti-Bolshevistic activity. To the redaktor (18) and newspapers were sent the special members of N.K.W.D.

Poles, who suffer this terrible occupation, call about the help to the western allies. They ask about the sending of mission to Poland that it could alone convince itself about the misfortune and terrible sufferings - about the sending of correspondents and agents, who could inform all the world about the accidents on the terrain, which is occupied by Russians - about the giving of all Poles, who were arrested, under the English-American protection - about the supplement to Poles the provisions, which were promised by U.N.R.A. The division out be accomplished by the English-American authorities, instead the Russian authorities ought be excluded.

Today I went to Rakow, where pretended I work. I took from Leon Zagrodzki one bread, and some coal. Also I bought the different things that to sell and to earn. -

Friday, the twenty and ninth of December, 1944.

Mrs. Wala and Mieczyslawa went to Grodzisk Mazowiecki with my things, which I gave to the selling. I went to Pruszkow, to my acquaintance, Mr. Alexander Daszkiewicz, who works on Polish police. Mr. Daszkiewicz descends from Pinsk. I made a acquaintance with him at my friend, Kazimierz Marciniak. With Daszkiewicz and Marciniak I drank the brandy. I returned home some tipsy. -

Saturday, the thirtieth of December, 1944.

I went to Rakow that to buy the different things to the selling. In this way I borrowed from Mrs. Mieczyslawa and Mrs. Wala five thousand Zlotys. But I did not take the things from the workmen, because I had a few money. Therefore I resolved to come next day together with my young friend, Bobus Zagrodzki, who now trades very well.

I hurried home, because today is my name-day, and I invited my sister, Leonarda, and my brother, Gotfryd, and Bobus Zagrodzki at the dinner. My wife prepared the cutlets, and a half liter of brandy. When I came, all were already in the sunny humor. All greeted me, and wished me that I endured the war.

My brother as the present of name-day gave me two letters from my brother Bohdan, who wrote to Milanowek to Agricultural Bank, asking about my family, and about his wife with daughter. Till this time we did not know, or he lives, or he is killed. But after the ending of insurrection in the quarter Praga, where my brother took part in the insurrection as the officer. I suppose that Polish sections, which were obliged to withdraw from Praga, because the Germans liquidated here the insurrection, left Praga, going in the eastern course of Poland. In Hoszczowka found himself my brother. On the tenth of September the spot Hoszczowka was evacuated by the Germans before the Bolsheviks. The withdrawing German sections carried away all Polish society. My brother was sent to Germany. Now he there is in Thüringen, Saalfeld a/Saale, Lachen-Str. Nr. 4. What he makes here - we do not know. But we are very happy, because he is living. I wrote today two post-cards to him, and one - to his wife, who there is at present in Checiny 2 (station) near Kielce.

My name-day in this year is other in the past year. But it was very nice. I spent the time in the circle of my dear family, who was in the past year in Pinsk.

This day, when all went out to Podkowa Lesna Glowna, I remembered my name-day, when before the year, my wife and I were in Warsaw on Panska-Street Nr. 21. Then came to us many, many our friends and acquaintances, who today there are on the camps, or are not living. -

Sunday, the thirty and first of December, 1944.

Together with little Bobus Zagrodzki I went to Rakow that to take the things, which I chose yesterday. We paid nine thousand Zlotys. But we were afraid in what way to carry out those things from the place of word, because here is standing the German watchman. Together with Leon Zagrodzki, when it was already dark, we carried out our luggage, which after New Year will be sold in Grodzisk Mazowiecki or in Milanowek.

Happily we arrived home. My wife gave us a dinner, which was savory. Now Mrs. Mieczyslawa, Mrs. Walentyna, Bobus Zagrodzki and I make the commercial company. We resolved to trade with different things that in this way to earn. Mrs. Mieczyslawa, Mrs. Wala, and Bobus give the money at these things, and I with Bobus search and supply the things, and then they are segregated and appreciated. Our partnership in honest and solvency. We work that to live only. We earn so little that it cannot say that we make the fortune in the war. Our fortune is: to have only the bread, some lard, meat, and from time to time white bread and milk. We are not pretentious.

Mrs. Mieczyslawa, who came from Pinsk to Warsaw in the second half of July this year, lost all during the insurrection in Warsaw. She is very intelligent woman. She worked in parliament of district in Pinsk, and later in hospital. She survived in Pinsk two occupation: Russian and German. And when in this year took place the occupation from the eastern sides of Poland, Mrs. Mieczyslawa arrived to Warsaw. Here broke out the insurrection. Mrs. Mieczyslawa together with Mrs. Wanda Chojnacka came on the tenth of August to Nowa Wies, where lives our friend Miss Halinka.

Today Mrs. Mieczyslawa is very, very poor. But she is quiet and always sunny and nice. The difficulties of a life she endures very manly. She knows, what means suffering, needs and pain. Mrs. Mieczyslawa is very brave woman. She is like by all. She is very beautiful, and first of all very nice.

The second person of our company is Mrs. Walentyna Zaleska - the wife of an advocate, who descends from Czar's Russia from Moscow. In Poland she lived in Mlawa, and in Warsaw. She lost all, because she left all in her flat on Wilcza-Street. She is also poor.

The third person - little Bobus Zagrodzki, who is seventeen years old, helps to his parents, who are poor and ruined by the insurrection. His parents lost all their fortune six times in their life. And today Bobus, though he is young helps and trades.

Today is a name-day of Sylwester. In all the world, especially in Poland, is a custom that all people - rich and poor - meet New Year. The last night in the Old Year is spent in the splendid atmosphere. The rich people play themselves. They play, they drink, they eat, they dance. These playing is dear, but the rich people do not call attention at the great expenses. The poor people play in their houses, flats. Their playings are poor and frugal. Especially the Varsovians like to play. Before the war, during the war, and still in the past year Warsaw played itself. Then I saw very beautiful and elegant ladies and girls, and in elegant and splendid evening-dresses - men.

The night-localities, the coffee-houses, the restaurants, the private lodgings were overcharged with the youth and older society. All played the jazz-bands, the music, the music bands. All played and danced, all sang and was amused. Still in the past year, namely in 1943 year, Warsaw was amused. And I spent the last night of this year very nicely and prettily. Then I was in company of Miss Krysia Ziolkowska, and Wanda Grudzinska. The first is today in the grave. She was killed during the insurrection in Warsaw, about the second we know nothing. Then we danced and greeted New Year, the 1944 year. Then we did not know that Krysia will find the death under the ruins. Then Krysia was satisfied, happy and looked out very beautiful. She did not know that she will not meet the future year: 1945.

Today we are all separated. We all lost our fortune. We are poor. But I am happy. I am together with my dear wife, with my dear sister, Leonarda, and brother, Gotfryd. My older brother Bohdan there is in Germany. He works there hard, but he is living. It is important. About my sister, Jane, and her two children I know nothing. But I believe that Good God allows to locate my sister - and we shall be together.

Our Sylwester, the day, when all people play - we spent in the beds, but all were in the sunny humor. All remembered the past time. But it is already the past and far time. -


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1. Beetroot soup, a Polish specialty.

2. As translated by the writer of the diary.

3. Also oblawa or chase.

4. Means "pickaxes".

5. Chases.

6. Means "segregated".

7. Means "beach".

8. Means "file", but actual intent is to cut or saw.

9. Means "becoming a priest".

10. Advisor main titular.

11. Means "search".

12. 1944.

13. The governor or prefect of a district.

14. The word "revision" means "to search" in this case.

15. House of Commons.

16. This is the time of fasting, just before Christmas.

17. Means "water".

18. Means "editors".